Efficacy of scheduled time ketorolac administration compared to continuous infusion for post-operative pain after abdominal surgery.
ABSTRACT Ketorolac tromethanime is a non steroidal anti inflammatory drug and its efficacy on acute pain control after abdominal surgery has been well documented. It has a rapid onset and it can be given both for intra operative and for post operative pain management.
In this study we aimed to evaluate if there were any differences in relieving post operative pain when Ketorolac was administered with continuous infusion or if it was given at prearranged times.
80 ASA I patients, scheduled for major gynecological surgery, were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group A patients were connected after surgical incision with a 24h analgesic infusor (2 ml/h) containing morphine (0.02 mg/kg/h) and Ketorolac (90 mg). Group B patients were connected after surgical incision with a 24h analgesic infusor (2 ml/h) containing morphine (0.02 mg/kg/h) at first and Ketorolac was then given in bolus after surgical incision and then every 8 hours for the first 24 hours. Post-operative pain scores were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) every 8 hours for 24 h. For a VAS value grater than 6, patients received Tramadol 100 mg.
Post-operative pain scores showed a better pain relief for patients in the group B. Furthermore, the requirements of rescue analgesic were less in the group B [Tramadol was used for only 8 patients] than in the group A [Tramadol was used for 31 patients]. No adverse effects were registered in both groups.
For post-operative pain Ketorolac administration at prearranged times, every 8 hours, offers greater benefits in respect to its continuous infusion.
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ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in the knowledge of pain mechanisms and pain management, postoperative pain continues to be a problem. Inadequately managed postsurgical pain has both clinical and economic consequences such as longer recovery times, delayed ambulation, higher incidence of complications, increased length of hospital stay, and potential to develop into chronic pain. Generally, opioids are the mainstay option for pain management in patients with moderate-to-severe postsurgical pain; however, opioids have significant side effects and have abuse potential. To improve patient and economic outcomes after surgery, postoperative pain guidelines have suggested incorporating a multi-modal/multi-mechanistic approach to pain treatment. A multi-modal approach is the simultaneous use of a combination of two or more (usually opioid and non-opioid) analgesics that provide two different mechanisms of actions. Utilizing a multi-modal approach may result in a greater reduction in pain vs. single therapies in addition to minimizing opioid use, thus reducing opioid related side effects. However, not all approaches may be effective for all types of patients and not all analgesics may be a viable option for outpatient settings, ambulatory surgery, or the fast-track surgical procedures. In this report, we present a review of the literature with a focus on intranasal ketorolac in order to provide a timely update regarding past, present, and future multi-modal treatment options for postoperative pain.Pain Practice 08/2014; 15(4). DOI:10.1111/papr.12239 · 2.18 Impact Factor