Ketorolac tromethanime is a non steroidal anti inflammatory drug and its efficacy on acute pain control after abdominal surgery has been well documented. It has a rapid onset and it can be given both for intra operative and for post operative pain management.
In this study we aimed to evaluate if there were any differences in relieving post operative pain when Ketorolac was administered with continuous infusion or if it was given at prearranged times.
80 ASA I patients, scheduled for major gynecological surgery, were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group A patients were connected after surgical incision with a 24h analgesic infusor (2 ml/h) containing morphine (0.02 mg/kg/h) and Ketorolac (90 mg). Group B patients were connected after surgical incision with a 24h analgesic infusor (2 ml/h) containing morphine (0.02 mg/kg/h) at first and Ketorolac was then given in bolus after surgical incision and then every 8 hours for the first 24 hours. Post-operative pain scores were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) every 8 hours for 24 h. For a VAS value grater than 6, patients received Tramadol 100 mg.
Post-operative pain scores showed a better pain relief for patients in the group B. Furthermore, the requirements of rescue analgesic were less in the group B [Tramadol was used for only 8 patients] than in the group A [Tramadol was used for 31 patients]. No adverse effects were registered in both groups.
For post-operative pain Ketorolac administration at prearranged times, every 8 hours, offers greater benefits in respect to its continuous infusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is the thirty-sixth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2013 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior, and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia; stress and social status; tolerance and dependence; learning and memory; eating and drinking; alcohol and drugs of abuse; sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology; mental illness and mood; seizures and neurologic disorders; electrical-related activity and neurophysiology; general activity and locomotion; gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions; cardiovascular responses; respiration and thermoregulation; and immunological responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in the knowledge of pain mechanisms and pain management, postoperative pain continues to be a problem. Inadequately managed postsurgical pain has both clinical and economic consequences such as longer recovery times, delayed ambulation, higher incidence of complications, increased length of hospital stay, and potential to develop into chronic pain. Generally, opioids are the mainstay option for pain management in patients with moderate-to-severe postsurgical pain; however, opioids have significant side effects and have abuse potential. To improve patient and economic outcomes after surgery, postoperative pain guidelines have suggested incorporating a multi-modal/multi-mechanistic approach to pain treatment. A multi-modal approach is the simultaneous use of a combination of two or more (usually opioid and non-opioid) analgesics that provide two different mechanisms of actions. Utilizing a multi-modal approach may result in a greater reduction in pain vs. single therapies in addition to minimizing opioid use, thus reducing opioid related side effects. However, not all approaches may be effective for all types of patients and not all analgesics may be a viable option for outpatient settings, ambulatory surgery, or the fast-track surgical procedures. In this report, we present a review of the literature with a focus on intranasal ketorolac in order to provide a timely update regarding past, present, and future multi-modal treatment options for postoperative pain.
Pain Practice 08/2014; 15(4). DOI:10.1111/papr.12239 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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