A Population-Based Study of Hospital Care Costs During 5 Years After Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Few studies have evaluated long-term costs after stroke onset, with almost no cost data for transient ischemic attack (TIA). We studied hospital costs during the 5 years after TIA or stroke in a population-based study. METHODS: Patients from a United Kingdom population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study) were recruited from 2002 to 2007. Analysis was based on follow-up until 2010. Hospital resource usage was obtained from patient hospital records and valued using 2008/2009 unit costs. Because not all patients had full 5-year follow-up, we used nonparametric censoring techniques. RESULTS: Among 485 TIA and 729 stroke patients ascertained and included, mean censor-adjusted 5-year hospital costs after index stroke were $25 741 (95% confidence interval, 23 659-27 914), with costs varying considerably by severity: $21 134 after minor stroke; $33 119 after moderate stroke; and $28 552 after severe stroke. For the 239 surviving stroke patients who had reached final follow-up, mean costs were $24 383 (95% confidence interval, 20 156-28 595), with more than half of costs ($12 972) being incurred in the first year after the event. After index TIA, the mean censor-adjusted 5-year costs were $18 091 (95% confidence interval, 15 947-20 258). A multivariate analysis showed that event severity, recurrent stroke, and coronary events after the index event were independent predictors of 5-year costs. Differences by stroke subtype were mostly explained by stroke severity and subsequent events. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term hospital costs after TIA and stroke are considerable, but they are mainly incurred during the first year after the index event. Event severity and experiencing subsequent stroke and coronary events after the index event accounted for much of the increase in costs.
SourceAvailable from: Gabriel Yiin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background-Prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is >10% at age >= 80 years, but the impact of population aging on rates of AF-related ischemic events is uncertain. Methods and Results-We studied age-specific incidence, outcome, and cost of all AF-related incident strokes and systemic emboli from 2002 to 2012 in the Oxford Vascular Study (OXVASC). We determined time trends in incidence of AF-related stroke in comparison with a sister study in 1981 to 1986, extrapolated numbers to the UK population and projected future numbers. Of 3096 acute cerebral or peripheral vascular events in the 92 728 study population, 383 incident ischemic strokes and 71 systemic emboli were related to AF, of which 272 (59.9%) occurred at >= 80 years. Of 597 fatal or disabling incident ischemic strokes, 262 (43.9%) were AF-related. Numbers of AF-related ischemic strokes at age >= 80 years increased nearly 3-fold from 1981-1986 to 2002-2012 (extrapolated to the United Kingdom: 6621 to 18 176 per year), due partly to increased age-specific incidence (relative rate 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.31-1.77, P=0.001), with potentially preventable AF-related events at age >= 80 years costing the United Kingdom 374 pound million per year. At current incidence rates, numbers of AF-related embolic events at age >= 80 years will treble again by 2050 (72 974/year), with 83.5% of all events occurring in this age group. Conclusions-Numbers of AF-related incident ischemic strokes at age >= 80 years have trebled over the last 25 years, despite the introduction of anticoagulants, and are projected to treble again by 2050, along with the numbers of systemic emboli. Improved prevention in older people with AF should be a major public health priority.Circulation 09/2014; 130(5). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.010942 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The rising numbers of people with atrial fibrillation (AF) carry a heavy toll on our graying population. Epidemiological data suggest that AF exists in 1 in 10 individuals aged older than 80 years. The risk of embolic stroke increases along with well-known cardiovascular risk factors. Should there be systematic screening for the elderly? Although 1 in 10 is a huge hit rate in screening for any major illness, the initiative for such programs in AF remains in ‘research and development’. At present, cardiologists can utilize implantable loop recorders in patients referred for specialist consultation. Novel technologies are also available, including cloud-based, algorithm-assisted, non-invasive monitoring patches, which allow extended observation periods. What about people in the community without a recognized need for cardiologic investigation? Mobile technology has made detection of pulse irregularity possible without medical attention. Smartphone apps enable opportunistic rhythm monitoring, but true arrhythmias need to be medically verified. AF may be the first common disorder to be effectively screened for by mobile technology. In the spirit of proactive campaigns such as ‘Know Your Pulse’, we should prepare for rapidly increasing reports of various pulse irregularities.BMC Medicine 09/2014; 12(1):180. DOI:10.1186/s12916-014-0180-8 · 7.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose Stroke is costly, although little is known about the long-term costs of survivors of stroke. In previous cost-of-illness studies, lifetime costs have been modeled based on estimates to 5 years after stroke. Building on previous work from the North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS), we aimed to describe resource use at 10 years and recalculate the lifetime societal costs of ischemic and hemorrhagic (intracerebral hemorrhage) stroke. Methods Ten-year patient-level resource use data were obtained and updated prices and population demographic statistics for 2010 were applied to our cost-of-illness models. We incorporated incidence data from a larger study region of NEMESIS than that used in the previous model and new 10-year survival and recurrent stroke rates. One-way sensitivity and probabilistic multivariable uncertainty analyses were undertaken. Results For ischemic stroke, the overall average annual direct costs at 10 years (US dollars [USD] 5207) were comparable to those for survivors between 3 and 5 years (USD5438). However, the contribution of some costs varied (eg, medications contributed 13% at 5 years and 20% at 10 years). For intracerebral hemorrhage, annual direct costs were considerably (24%) greater at 10 years than estimated using 3 to 5 year data. Greater average lifetime costs per case were found using the updated models (ischemic stroke: previous model USD51806 and current USD68 769; intracerebral hemorrhage: previous model USD43 786 and current USD54 956 per case). Following sensitivity and multivariable uncertainty analyses, the findings were robust. Conclusions Costs to 10 years after stroke have not previously been reported. Our findings demonstrate the importance of estimating resource use over longer periods for forecasting lifetime estimates.Stroke 11/2014; 45(11):3389-94. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006200 · 6.02 Impact Factor