A systematic review of randomized trials assessing human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening
ABSTRACT Our objective was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in randomized trials. We conducted a systematic literature search of the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane. Eligible studies were randomized trials comparing HPV-based to cytology-based screening strategies, with disease status determined by colposcopy/biopsy for participants with positive results. Disease rates (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN]2+ and 3+), sensitivity and positive predictive value were abstracted or calculated from the articles. Six studies met inclusion criteria. Relative sensitivities for detecting CIN3+ of HPV testing-based strategies versus cytology ranged from 0.8-2.1. The main limitation of our study was that testing methodologies and screening/management protocols were highly variable across studies. Screening strategies in which a single initial HPV-positive test led to colposcopy were more sensitive than cytology, but resulted in higher colposcopy rates. These results have implications for co-testing with HPV and cytology as recommended in the U.S.
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ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is a major health problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. One of the preventive measures is the vaccination of teenagers against oncogenic human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to find out the level of knowledge mothers possess about these vaccines and their willingness to administer vaccination to their teenage girls. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 255 consecutive women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja. They were given either a self-administered questionnaire or interviewer-administered questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions. Information recorded includes socio-demographic variables, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines and acceptance of these vaccines for their adolescent girls. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. The mean age of the respondents was 26.9 years. Over 90% had at least secondary education. A total of 102 (40%) had the knowledge of cancer of the cervix while 153 (60%) had never heard about it. Overall, 236 (92.5%) of them had no idea about the predisposing factors. The study showed that only 23 (9.0%) out of the total respondents had heard about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. In the same vein, 20 (7.8%) had knowledge about HPV vaccine. Among the respondents, who had the knowledge of HPV and vaccination, 18.2% and 23.4% of them had secondary and tertiary levels of education respectively. Overall, 160 (62.8%) accepted that the vaccines could be administered to their teenage girls. Awareness of cervical cancer, HPV infections, and HPV vaccines is low among antenatal clinic attendees in Gwagwalada, Abuja. However, majority of them would want their girls vaccinated against HPV infections. There is a need for all stakeholders to step up awareness creation for improved HPV vaccination project in Nigeria.Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association 01/2015; 56(1):23-7. DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.149166
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ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer ranks third in prevalence and fourth as cause of death in women worldwide. In Brazil, 17,540 women were diagnosed in 2012 with the disease. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types is a necessary condition for the development of pre-invasive and invasive cervical neoplasia. Currently, over 100 HPV types have been identified, but HPV16 and 18 are recognized as the mayor culprits in cervical carcinogenesis. Our objective was to assess the relationships between single- (ST) and multiple-type (MT) HPV infections with patients' age and lesion pathological status. 328 patients with either squamous or glandular intraepithelial or invasive cervical lesion were selected. All subjects were tested for HPV genotypes with reverse hybridization for 21 high- (hr-HPV) and 16 low-risk (lr-HPV) probes. Prevalence of ST and MT HPV infections was compared across histological types and age strata. 287 (87%) women had at least one HPV type detected and 149 (52%) had MT infections. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV16, present in 142 cases (49% of all HPV-positive cases), followed by HPV58, 52, 31, 35 and 33. HPV18, in single or multiple infections, occurred in 23 cases (8% of hr-HPV cases). Almost all glandular lesions were associated with HPV16 and 18 alone. Multiple infections were significantly more prevalent in squamous than in glandular lesion for HPV16 and 18 (P = 0.04 and 0.03 respectively). The prevalence of MT infections followed a bimodal distribution; peaking in women younger 29 years and in those aged 50 to 59. Our data indicate that prevention strategies for pre-invasive and invasive squamous lesions should be focused on HPV16 and a few alpha-9 HPV types. It is clear to us that in young women, prophylaxis must cover a large amalgam of HPV types beyond classic HPV16 and 18.BMC Infectious Diseases 04/2014; 14(1):214. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-214 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To compare cervical careHPV screening in a rural community setting with other methods of cervical screening for the detection of high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Study design: Cross-sectional study. All ever-married women aged 30–59 years surveyed in an administrative area of Uttar Pradesh, India were targeted for screening by careHPV (cervical and vaginal samples), Pap test and visual inspection of the cervix following application of acetic acid (VIA). Women who screened positive were referred for colposcopy and the results were confirmed histologically. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for the detection of histological CINII+ and CINIII+ were assessed for each screening test. Results Sixty-five percent (5032/7704) of the women invited for cervical screening agreed to participate in the study. Screen-positive rates for cervical careHPV, vaginal careHPV, Pap test and VIA were 3%, 2%, 3% and 6%, respectively. Data for women who did not complete all screening modes, women lost to follow-up and women with missing histological results were excluded before data analysis, resulting in a final sample size of 4658. Cervical careHPV had high sensitivity (85%) for the detection of CINIII+ lesions and moderate sensitivity (53%) for the detection of CINII+ lesions. Sensitivities for the detection of CINIII+ and CINII+ were 54% and 41% for vaginal careHPV, 62% and 44% for Pap test, and 8% and 22% for VIA, respectively. Conclusion Cervical careHPV testing is superior to VIA and Pap test for the detection of high-grade CIN in a rural community setting.European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 05/2014; 176. DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.03.006 · 1.63 Impact Factor