The authors performed a review of the literature to evaluate the efficacy of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Selection criteria included: 1) human subjects, 2) articles written in English, and 3) randomized placebo-controlled trials. Evaluation was performed according to the CONSORT 2010 criteria. A total of 14 articles were included in the review. Studies varied considerably in terms of methodological design, particularly regarding the site of application of the laser beam, the number of applications performed, their duration, the laser beam features (wavelength, frequency, output, dosage), and outcome measures. The outcome of the trials was controversial and not particularly related to any features of the laser beam, to the number of laser applications, and their duration. Based on the results of this review no definitive conclusions can be drawn on the efficacy of LLLT for the treatment of TMD. Many methodological differences among the studies, especially regarding the number and duration of laser applications and characteristics of the laser beam (wavelength, frequency, output), do not allow for standardized guidelines for effective treatment with LLLT. The only indication seems to be that LLLT is probably more effective for the treatment of TMJ disorders, and less effective for the treatment of masticatory muscle disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Besides the different forms of odontalgia, myalgias of the masticatory muscles are the most frequent noninfectious complaints in the orofacial region. After summarizing the recommendations set forth by the Interdisciplinary Working Group of Orofacial Pain within the German Chapter of the IASP (German Pain Society), we present the current state of knowledge regarding the etiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic options, based on an extensive literature search. A systematic literature search was carried out in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the database of the Deutsche Zahnärztliche Zeitschrift. The results corroborate our previous recommendations that for the majority of patients pain reduction or pain relief can be achieved with noninvasive, reversible methods. Short- and long-term trials have added more evidence to the fact that different therapeutic measures have similar efficacy. In patients with chronic myalgias of the jaw muscles, involvement of a psychotherapist is crucial. Patient education, oral appliances, physiotherapeutic exercises, and acupuncture are recommended therapeutic measures, while physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, and psychological therapy received a limited recommendation.
Der Schmerz 05/2013; 27(3). DOI:10.1007/s00482-013-1329-7 · 1.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis and management of facial pain below the eye can be very different dependant on whether the patient visits a dentist or medical practitioner. A structure for accurate diagnosis is proposed beginning with a very careful history. The commonest acute causes of pain are dental and these are well managed by dentists. Chronic facial pain can be unilateral or bilateral and continuous or episodic. The commonest non-dental pains are temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), especially musculoskeletal involving the muscles of mastication either unilaterally or bilaterally; they may be associated with other chronic pains. A very wide range of treatments are used but early diagnosis, reassurance and some simple physiotherapy is often effective in those with good coping strategies. Dentists will often make splints to wear at night. Neuropathic pain is usually unilateral and of the episodic type; the most easily recognized is trigeminal neuralgia. This severe electric shock like pain, provoked by light touch, responds best to carbamazepine, and neurosurgery in poorly controlled patients. Trauma, either major or because of dental procedures, results in neuropathic pain and these are then managed as for any other neuropathic pain. Red flags include giant cell arteritis which much be distinguished from temporomandibular disorders (TMD), especially in >50 yr olds, and cancer which can present as a progressive neuropathic pain. Burning mouth syndrome is rarely recognized as a neuropathic pain as it occurs principally in peri-menopausal women and is thought to be psychological. Chronic facial pain patients are best managed by a multidisciplinary team.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 07/2013; 111(1):95-104. DOI:10.1093/bja/aet125 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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