Sharing control with haptics: seamless driver support from manual to automatic control.
ABSTRACT Haptic shared control was investigated as a human-machine interface that can intuitively share control between drivers and an automatic controller for curve negotiation.
As long as automation systems are not fully reliable, a role remains for the driver to be vigilant to the system and the environment to catch any automation errors. The conventional binary switches between supervisory and manual control has many known issues, and haptic shared control is a promising alternative.
A total of 42 respondents of varying age and driving experience participated in a driving experiment in a fixed-base simulator, in which curve negotiation behavior during shared control was compared to during manual control, as well as to three haptic tunings of an automatic controller without driver intervention.
Under the experimental conditions studied, the main beneficial effect of haptic shared control compared to manual control was that less control activity (16% in steering wheel reversal rate, 15% in standard deviation of steering wheel angle) was needed for realizing an improved safety performance (e.g., 11% in peak lateral error). Full automation removed the need for any human control activity and improved safety performance (e.g., 35% in peak lateral error) but put the human in a supervisory position.
Haptic shared control kept the driver in the loop, with enhanced performance at reduced control activity, mitigating the known issues that plague full automation.
Haptic support for vehicular control ultimately seeks to intuitively combine human intelligence and creativity with the benefits of automation systems.
Conference Paper: Direct and Indirect Haptic Aiding for Curve Negotiation[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Haptic technology has become a viable way to support operators in vehicular control. This paper investigates two different design philosophies for continuous haptic feedback to support drivers with curve negotiation. The first system, 'direct haptic assistance', is designed to yield best results when the driver gives way to the guidance forces on the steering wheel. The second, 'indirect haptic assistance', is designed to yield best results when the driver counter-acts the forces. The two designs were compared in a driving simulator experiment in which 27 subjects participated. Results show that both systems are helpful in case of low visibility, where the driver lacks sufficient preview of the curves. With normal visibility no improvements on performance were found, for either system. Further experiments are required to investigate the difference between the two approaches.Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics; 10/2013
Conference Paper: Driver adaptation to haptic shared control of the steering wheel[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although the benefits of haptic shared control of the steering wheel have been repeatedly demonstrated, longitudinal studies of how drivers adapt to this kind of system are still lacking. The present study addressed this question by comparing two groups of participants in a driving simulator for an extended time period; one group drove with a shared control system and the other drove without. After the practice, all participants drove a final trial with shared control during which a failure of the system occurred. The results show that the evolution of driving performance and the way in which drivers monitored their performance was similar for the two groups. This suggests that the drivers quickly updated their internal model of the steering system dynamics at the sensorimotor level, without further behavioural adaptation afterwards. However, it appears that the internal model was consolidated with repeated use of the system, which translated as a difficulty to compensate for the system's failure. In addition, it appears that drivers did not attempt to maintain a level of task difficulty when steering was facilitated.2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, San Diego; 10/2014
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ABSTRACT: The bioactive metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a product of sphingosine kinases (SphKs), mediates diverse biological processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation, survival and angiogenesis. A fluorinated analogue of S1P receptor agonist has been synthesized by utilizing a ring opening reaction of oxacycles by a lithiated difluoromethylphosphonate anion as the key reaction. In vitro activity of this S1P analogue is also reported.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 06/2014; · 2.95 Impact Factor