Effects of Combining Electroacupuncture with General Anesthesia Induced by Sevoflurane in Patients Undergoing Supratentorial Craniotomy and Improvements in Their Clinical Recovery Profile & Blood Enkephalin
Drug-induced anesthesia combined with electroacupuncture (EA) in patients has been put into practice in recent years in China. In this study, we showed the effectiveness of EA on the speed of post-operative recovery of patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy and the potential clinical mechanism of EA. Dual channel electrical stimulator made by HANS Beijing connected the following acupoints respectively: LI4 (Hegu), SJ5 (Waiguan), ST36 (Zusanli), BL63 (Jinmen), LR3 (Taichong), and GB40 (Qiuxu). Disperse-dense and symmetric biphasic pulse waves were selected, frequency of waves (pulse rates) were 2Hz/100Hz, altered/3sec; pulse duration was 0.6ms/0.2ms, 2Hz: 0.6ms, 100Hz: 0.2ms; symmetric biphasic pulse wave. We found that the EA-group required 9.62% less sevoflurane than the sham EA-group (P<0.05). During recovery from anesthesia, the autonomous respiration recovery time, tracheo-tube removal time, eye-opening time, voluntary motor recovery time, orientation force recovery time, and the operating-room departure time of the EA-group were all significantly shortened 35.86%, 27.07%, 38.38%, 30.11%, 34.95%, 28.80% than the corresponding sham EA-group, respectively (P<0.05). The serum enkephalin values were elevated in the EA group versus the sham EA-group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is the thirty-fifth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2012 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: /st>Although opioids are widely used as analgesics in general anaesthesia, they have unpleasant side-effects and can delay postoperative recovery. Acupuncture and related techniques are effective for acute and chronic pain, and reduces some side-effects. We assessed the effect of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on intra-operative remifentanil consumption and the incidences of anaesthesia-related side-effects.
/st>Sixty patients undergoing sinusotomy were randomly assigned to TEAS or control group. TEAS consisted of 30 min of stimulation (6-9 mA, 2/10 Hz) on the Hegu (LI4), Neiguan (PC6), and Zusanli (ST36) before anaesthesia. The patients in the control group had the electrodes applied, but received no stimulation. Bispectral index was used to monitor the depth of anaesthesia. Perioperative haemodynamics were recorded, and peripheral blood samples were collected to measure the levels of mediators of surgical stress. The primary end point was intraoperative remifentanil consumption and the secondary endpoints were recovery quality and anaesthesia-related side-effects.
/st>Patients in the TEAS group required 39% less remifentanil during surgery than controls [0.0907 (sd 0.026) μg kg(-1) min(-1) vs 0.051 (0.018) μg kg(-1) min(-1)]. There were no differences in intra-operative haemodynamics or surgical stress between groups. However, the time to extubation and recall in the control group was 16.8 (6.8) min and 23.0 (5.0) min, respectively, significantly longer than that in the TEAS group (P<0.01). TEAS also decreased the incidence of dizziness and pruritus within the first 24 h after surgery (P<0.01).
/st>The use of TEAS significantly reduced intra-operative remifentanil consumption and alleviated postoperative side-effects in patients undergoing sinusotomy.Clinical trial registrationThe trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01700855).
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 02/2014; 112(6). DOI:10.1093/bja/aeu001 · 4.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electroacupuncture has been demonstrated to be effective at alleviating pain and postoperative side-effects. Our aim was to investigate whether transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation, a low-skill alternative to needle-based electroacupuncture, could improve the quality of recovery after ambulatory surgery. Seventy-two women scheduled for cosmetic breast surgery were randomly allocated to transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation or sham groups. Patients in the transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation group received 30 min of electrical stimulation at three acupoints located on the hand and forearm before the induction of general anaesthesia. We found significant mean (SD) differences between the transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation and sham groups in the mean (SD) length of recovery room stay (35.6 (12.9) min vs 48.3 (16.3) min, p = 0.01), time to removal of the laryngeal mask airway (10.2 (2.5) min vs 17.8 (4.4) min, p = 0.01), and time to reorientation of the patient (14.6 (3.2) min vs 26.5 (5.0) min, p = 0.01). Further, postoperative pain scores and the incidence of side-effects were all lower in the transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation group. In conclusion, transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation can significantly improve the quality of recovery and decrease the incidence of anaesthesia-related side-effects for patients undergoing ambulatory surgery.
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