Higher postprandial serum ghrelin among African-American girls before puberty

Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-3360, USA.
Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM (Impact Factor: 1). 08/2012; 25(7-8):691-6. DOI: 10.1515/jpem-2012-0081
Source: PubMed


Recent reports suggest that ghrelin regulation may differ by ethnicity and age. This study was designed to examine circulating ghrelin among overweight female African Americans across different age groups.
Eleven overweight peripubertal girls, 17 overweight pubertal girls, and a control group of 18 overweight African-American premenopausal women ingested a standard liquid meal after an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and for 4 h postchallenge. Participants rated appetite by a visual analog scale.
Peripubertal girls demonstrated higher postprandial ghrelin and lesser ghrelin suppression compared with adults (p < 0.05), corresponding with greater desire to eat across the test period (p = 0.017). Fasting ghrelin tended to be inversely related to fasting estradiol (r = -0.264, p = 0.076).
Compared with overweight African-American women, peripubertal girls had higher ghrelin as well as greater appetite after a standard meal. These results may suggest a dysregulation in ghrelin reflective of demands of growth.

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Available from: Krista Casazza, Aug 14, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Food intake and energy balance are regulated during the lifespan with critical changes in each specific period (infancy, adulthood, aging). Some of ghrelin's changes may contribute to the regulation of food intake and weight in children. We aimed to analyze the ghrelin response to feeding in lean or obese subjects from birth to adolescence. Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and EMBASE (December 1999 to February 2013) and identified 62 relevant articles, of which 29 were suitable to be included. Results and conclusions: Total ghrelin response to meals is particular, with refractoriness in neonates and lean children and an inhibition that starts from puberty. Total ghrelin levels are decreased after meals, irrespective of pubertal stages in obese children and adolescents. Conversely, total ghrelin is decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test in all ages, with the exception of neonates. Data on unacylated ghrelin response are scant but resemble those of total ghrelin. The acylated ghrelin response to meals or oral glucose tolerance test is discordant, although a precocious inhibition followed by a rise back is present in both lean and obese children. The post-feeding profile in children with Prader-Willi syndrome is also peculiar, with a conserved and deeper inhibition of all ghrelin forms.
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