Chemical composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of selected grasses in the semiarid savannas of Swaziland
ABSTRACT Little is known about the grass species type, composition and nutritive value in the semiarid savannas that sustain most of Swaziland's cattle population through the seven-month-long dry season. This study was conducted to investigate the nutritional characteristics of grasses collected from two grazing areas (Big Bend and Simunye), which differed mainly in soil types. Mature grass species were harvested and evaluated for chemical composition (organic matter, neutral detergent fibre [NDF], acid detergent fibre [ADF], crude protein [CP] and minerals) and in vitro ruminal fermentation (in vitro gas production, in vitro organic matter degradability and partitioning factors). The most common grass species in the Big Bend grazing area were Bothriochloa insculpta, Cenchrus ciliaris and Urochloa mosambicensis. In the Simunye grazing area the most common species were B. insculpta, U. mosambicensis, Heteropogon contortus, Panicum deustum and P. maximum. For grasses harvested from Simunye, the most (P < 0.05) degradable (532 mg g−1 dry matter) was B. insculpta, which also had the least fibre (597 g kg−1 NDF and 351 g kg−1 ADF) and the highest CP content (79.8 g kg−1). The most common grass species harvested from the Big Bend area did not differ (P > 0.05) in their Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Zn, CP and NDF content. However, U. mosambicensis had the highest (P < 0.05) ADF content. The least fermentation efficiency (partitioning factor = 2.2 mg degradable organic matter [DOM] ml−1 gas) was observed for U. mosambicensis as a result of low DOM coupled with high cumulative gas production. It was concluded that all the grasses investigated in this study show a deficit for Ca, P and protein. Therefore, supplementation is needed to ensure maximum forage utilisation and to satisfy nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock.
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- "On their study around watering points, Fensham, Holman & Cox (1999) and Beukes & Ellis (2003) also concluded that there is a general trend for reduced forage biomass with increasing distance from water points. Both DM yield and estimated G.C reported in this study were extremely low compared with the study of Tefera et al. (2009) in Swaziland, but similar to the report of Abule, Snyman & Smit (2007) in Ethiopian semi-arid rangelands. Based on an inference from the long-term average rainfall of the study area (500 mm), which was also recorded during the study period, the mean DM yield, and hence G.C was extremely too low to carry the potential number of animals that this area should support. "
ABSTRACT: This study examined rangeland condition and degradation characteristics of the semi-arid savannahs of Swaziland in response to distance from dip-tank points in three soil types. Eight dip-tanks, three each in sandy and loamy, and two in stony soils, were selected. Two transects (1 km) radiating from each dip-tank were established. Total herbaceous yield (range: 176-363.8 kg DM ha(-1)) and grazing capacity (47.5-111.5 ha LSU-1) were very low throughout the studied areas. Palatability and ecological values of grasses were 18.7-67.6% and 43.2-64.1%, respectively. Most sites were dominated by woody seedlings and saplings (<0-2 m). Most vegetation variables did not respond considerably to distance, soil types and sites within soil types. When all measured variables were combined, the results showed a generally poor range condition scores across distance points from the dip-tank. A holistic restoration programme with full involvement of communal farmers, experts, policy makers and extension workers is recommended.African Journal of Ecology 07/2014; 52(4). DOI:10.1111/aje.12155 · 1.00 Impact Factor
African Journal of Ecology 08/2012; 50(2):247-250. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2011.01314.x · 1.00 Impact Factor
- "However, our short-term study indicates that grazing seems not to be an exceptional event. During our observations, the grass layer was already senescent, indicating very low digestible protein/ energy content (Tefera et al., 2009; Safari et al., 2011). "
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ABSTRACT: A feeding experiment was conducted to measure the faecal recovery rates of n-alkanes and to evaluate molasses-based alkane boluses for feed intake and digestibility estimations in cattle consuming low-quality tropical roughages. The experiment was performed in a cross-over design with four experimental diets, four 21-day feeding runs and eight bulls. The animals received a measured amount of the experimental diets that resulted in little refusal throughout the experiment. After seven days of adaptation, the animals were dosed with molasses-based alkane boluses (each containing 200 g C32 and 150 g C36) twice daily at 07:00 and 18:00 h. Concurrent with the alkane dosing, faecal spot samples were taken twice daily until the end of each run. In addition, total faecal collections were performed over the last 5 days of each run. The mean faecal recovery rate of both natural and dosed n-alkanes ranged between 0.61 and 0.86, with the recovery showing an upward trend with increasing carbon-chain length. The recovery rate of dosed alkanes was considerably higher than that of adjacent odd-chain alkanes. Whilst diets did not differ (P≥0.23) in the recovery of even-chain n-alkanes, an effect of diet (P≤0.01) was observed in the recovery of odd-chain n-alkanes. The faecal concentration of dosed alkanes reached equilibrium 3.30 days into the alkane dosing. On the assumption of similar faecal recovery of adjacent n-alkanes, intake was underestimated by 12% (P<0.001) when C31/C33 and C33/C32 alkane pairs were used and by only 1.5% (P≥0.42) when C35/C36 was used. Correction for differences in the faecal recovery of adjacent n-alkanes considerably improved the intake prediction when C31/C32 and C33/C32 pairs were used. Digestibility of diets was accurately predicted using either C36 as external marker or C35 as internal marker corrected for incomplete recovery. The results showed that molasses-based boluses administered twice daily are suitable, and that knowledge of the faecal recovery rates of adjacent n-alkanes improves the reliability of the predictions.Animal Feed Science and Technology 11/2012; 177(s 3–4):161–171. DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2012.08.014 · 2.09 Impact Factor