Micropropagation of Juniperus phoenicea from adult plant explants and analysis of ploidy stability using flow cytometry

Biologia Plantarum (Impact Factor: 1.74). 03/2007; 51(1):7-14. DOI: 10.1007/s10535-007-0003-2

ABSTRACT We report here the successful micropropagation of adult Juniperus phoenicea L. with respective ploidy stability studies. Microcuttings with axillary buds were grown on five media supplemented with different growth regulator combinations. Best elongation rates were achieved on Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW) medium supplemented with kinetin alone or with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), while Rugini olive (OM) medium stimulated the development of new branches. Shoots growing on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium browned and showed necrotic zones. Shoots of second to fourth subcultures usually had higher elongation rates than those of the first culture. For rooting assays, half strength DKW and OM media, different concentrations of growth regulators, auxin continuous exposure vs. dipping and the type of solid matrix were assessed. During rooting assays, two morphotypes were observed with one type having well developed internodes and the other showing hyperhydratation and no internode development. High rooting rates (40 %) were only obtained in the first morphotype shoots exposed for 5 min to 2.4 µM IBA and then transferred to OM medium without growth regulators. Plants were acclimatized in pots containing a mixture of peat and Perlite (3:2) in greenhouse with progressive reduction of relative humidity. A flow cytometric screening for major ploidy changes revealed no differences among the morphotypes and between them and the mother plant. Also the nuclear DNA content of this species was estimated for the first time using flow cytometry (2C = 24.71 pg). Additional key words: in vitro culture, nuclear DNA content, plant acclimatization, rooting studies.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cell sizes are linked across multiple tissues, including stomata, and this variation is closely correlated with genome size. These associations raise the question of whether generic changes in cell size cause suboptimal changes in stomata, requiring subsequent evolution under selection for stomatal size.We tested the relationships among guard cell length, genome size and vegetation type using phylogenetically independent analyses on 67 species of the ecologically and structurally diverse family, Proteaceae. We also compared how genome and stomatal sizes varied at ancient (among genera) and more recent (within genus) levels.The observed 60-fold range in genome size in Proteaceae largely reflected the mean chromosome size. Compared with variation among genera, genome size varied much less within genera (< 6% of total variance) than stomatal size, implying evolution in stomatal size subsequent to changes in genome size. Open vegetation and closed forest had significantly different relationships between stomatal and genome sizes.Ancient changes in genome size clearly influenced stomatal size in Proteaceae, but adaptation to habitat strongly modified the genome–stomatal size relationship. Direct adaptation to the environment in stomatal size argues that new proxies for past concentrations of atmospheric CO2 that incorporate stomatal size are superior to older models based solely on stomatal frequency.
    New Phytologist 09/2014; · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mediterranean junipers are of special ecological importance as key components of resource islands in semi-arid mountain ecosystems of the Mediterranean basin. The fragmentation of their habitat, which was primarily natural and driven by climatic drought conditions, is currently being aggravated by anthropogenic pressure. In the framework of this concern, the present work aims to contribute establishing a genomic profile of Juniperus in its western Mediterranean range, with a special emphasis placed on J. thurifera. DNA contents were assessed by flow cytometry in 43 populations of nine taxa within their Mediterranean range (first reports for J. navicularis, J. thurifera subsp. africana and J. thurifera subsp. thurifera). Chromosome numbers were determined by orcein staining in eight taxa (first counts for J. oxycedrus subsp. badia, J. phoenicea subsp. phoenicea, J. phoenicea subsp. turbinata, of 2n = 2x = 22, and for J. thurifera subsp. thurifera, of 2n = 4x = 44). Tetraploid cytotypes have been the only ones found in the 19 populations of J. thurifera studied, this being the first report of a Juniperus species exclusively polyploid. In J. thurifera, C-value does not respond to habitat fragmentation, in the same way that genetic diversity within populations was previously shown to be unaltered, suggesting that this factor has not had, at least to date, a significant impact on populations at genomic and genetic levels. Habitat fragmentation leads to deeply age-biased populations with a male-biased imbalanced sex ratio (lack of females), indicating an urgent need to improve regeneration within the populations of this species.
    Tree Genetics & Genomes 04/2012; 9(2). · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Due to their position of interface between the sea and land, the flora and vegetation of coastal beaches and dunes, occupy ecologically extreme, sensitive, unique and valuable habitats. The occurrence of a large number of endemic taxa and specific plant associations endowed with key ecological services and adapted to a stressful and harsh environmental gradient, gives them a high interest for nature conservation and an important role in sustainable territorial planning. However, such ecosystems are vulnerable to the disruption caused by several anthropogenic sources. Among other global threat factors, the inevitable sea rise caused by climate change and, at a local scale, the non-negligible implications of trampling caused by disorderly coastal touristic exploitation, growing construction pressure in the littoral, and a seasonal population boom in late spring and in summer, plus all derivate forms of pollution, are threat factors to their integrity. Therefore, a correct planning of the touristic economic activities requires the understanding of the vegetation composition and spatial distribution patterns, intrinsically determined by their biogeographic context in the Euro-Siberian or Mediterranean Regions. This comprehensive work, based on a broad phytogeographic study, brings together disperse information on plant communities of the Portuguese sandy coasts (beaches and dunes), by analysing floristic compositions, chorology and ecological characteristics, and matching them with the “Nature 2000” network habitats. Resilience and vulnerability are also studied. In a nature conservation perspective, a positive balance (and a sustainable co-existence) between the preservation of natural values and human development in the Portuguese coast, will benefit with the integration of this knowledge in coastal planning and management activities.
    Journal of Coastal Conservation 03/2014; 17(3):279-299. · 1.10 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014

View other sources