Maximum Bite Force and Prey Size of Tyrannosaurus rex and Their Relationships to the Inference of Feeding Behavior
ABSTRACT The feeding behavior of the theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex is investigated through analysis of two variables that are critical to successful predation, bite force and prey body mass, as they scale with the size of the predator. These size-related variables have important deterministic effects on the predator's feeding strategy, through their effects on lethal capacity and choice of prey. Bite force data compiled for extant predators (crocodylians, carnivorans, chelonians and squamates) are used to establish a relationship between bite force and body mass among extant predators. These data are used to estimate the maximum potential bite force of T. rex, which is between about 183,000 and 235,000 N for a bilateral bite. The relationship between maximum prey body mass and predator body mass among the same living vertebrates is used to infer the likely maximum size of prey taken by T. rex in the Late Cretaceous. This makes it possible to arrive at a more rigorous assessment of the role of T. rex as an active predator and/or scavenger than has hitherto been possible. The results of this analysis show that adult Triceratops horridus fall well within the size range of potential prey that are predicted to be available to a solitary, predaceous T. rex. This analysis establishes boundary conditions for possible predator/prey relationships among other dinosaurs, as well as between these two taxa.
- American Museum Novitates 12/2013; 3790(3790):1-46. DOI:10.1206/3790.1 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blanco R.E., Rinderknecht, A. & Lecuona, G. 2011: The bite force of the largest fossil rodent (Hystricognathi, Caviomorpha, Dinomyidae). Lethaia, Vol. 45, pp. 157–163.An exceptionally well‐preserved skull of the largest fossil rodent Josephoartigasia monesi allows the first analysis of the bite mechanics of this group of South American giant rodents. In this study, we reconstructed the main anatomical features of the skull of this Pliocene rodent, relating them to the bite force at incisors. Bite force was estimated using three different techniques. Two methods suggest that bite forces at incisors of around 1000 N were possible for these mammals. However, the incisors seem to be stronger than expected for this bite force implying that the bite forces may have been greater than 3000 N. We consider three hypotheses: allometric effects, teeth digging or defence against predators, to explain our results. □Bite force, Dinomyidae, incisors, largest rodent, Pliocene.Lethaia 04/2012; 45(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2011.00265.x · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Iranian brown bear is distributed in north, west and northwest of Iran. This research was conducted to study the sexual dimorphism of Iranian brown bear in Alborz and Caucasia population using Geometric Morphometric. Sixty two skulls were studied based on species distribution in country. There was a significant difference between male and female's skull shape confirming the presence of sexual dimorphism in the skull shape of Iranian brown bear. Comparison of shape of two sexes showed the reinforcement and strength different parts in males' skull. Dimorphism can also be related to the social ecology of brown bears.