Associations between home- and family-related factors and fruit juice and soft drink intake among 10- to 12-year old children. The ENERGY project

Ghent University, Watersportlaan 2, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: .
Appetite (Impact Factor: 2.69). 11/2012; 61(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.10.019
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The aim of this study is to investigate associations of family-related factors with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink consumption. A cross-sectional survey among ten- to twelve-year-old children and their parents in eight European countries was conducted to gather this data. Key variables of interest were children's self-reported fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake per day (outcome) and family-related factors (based on parents' report) related to these two behaviours (modeling, automaticity, availability, monitoring, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, avoid negative modeling, self-efficacy, rewarding, and family consumption). 7915 children (52% girls; mean age=11.7±0.8 years) and 6512 parents (83% women; mean age=41.4±5.3 years) completed the questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the aforementioned associations. Three of the 11 family-related factors (modeling, availability, and family consumption) were positively associated with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake. Additionally, three family-related factors (permissiveness, monitoring, and self-efficacy) were solely associated with soft drink intake and one family-related factor (communicating health beliefs) was related to fruit drink/juice intake. Future interventions targeting children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake should focus on the home environment, parents and their practices, especially on parents' fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake and availability of these beverages at home.

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Available from: Bettina Bringolf-Isler, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "Means, standard deviations (SD) and proportions were calculated to describe the main variables. As descriptive results regarding the EBRBs [38] and perceptions of family and friend influences have been reported in previous publications [42,43], the current paper will only present these descriptive statistics to better understand the subsequent analyses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children’s energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey in eight countries across Europe among 10–12 year old schoolchildren. Child questionnaires were used to assess EBRBs (soft drink intake, TV viewing, breakfast consumption, sport participation), and potential determinants of these behaviours as perceived by the child, including family rules, parental and friend norms and modelling. Linear and logistic regression analyses (n = 7811) were applied to study the association of parental (norms, modelling and rules) and friend influences (norm and modelling) with the EBRBs. In addition, potential moderating effects of parental influences on the associations of friend influences with the EBRBs were studied by including interaction terms. Results Children reported more unfavourable friend norms and modelling regarding soft drink intake and TV viewing, while they reported more favourable friend and parental norms and modelling for breakfast consumption and physical activity. Perceived friend and parental norms and modelling were significantly positively associated with soft drink intake, breakfast consumption, physical activity (only modelling) and TV time. Across the different behaviours, ten significant interactions between parental and friend influencing variables were found and suggested a weaker association of friend norms and modelling when rules were in place. Conclusion Parental and friends norm and modelling are associated with schoolchildren’s energy balance-related behaviours. Having family rules or showing favourable parental modelling and norms seems to reduce the potential unfavourable associations of friends’ norms and modelling with the EBRBs.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 07/2014; 11(1):82. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-11-82 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the association between maternal education and unhealthy eating behaviour (the consumption of snack and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)) and explored environmental factors that might mediate this association in 11-year-old children. These environmental factors include home availability of snacks and SSB, parental rules about snack and SSB consumption, parental intake of snacks and SSB, peer sensitivity and children's snack-purchasing behaviour. Data were obtained from the fourth wave of the INPACT (IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT) study (2011), in which 1318 parent–child dyads completed a questionnaire. Data were analysed using multivariate regression models. Children of mothers with an intermediate educational level were found to consume more snacks than those of mothers with a high educational level ( B = 1·22, P = 0·02). This association was not mediated by environmental factors. Children of mothers with a low educational level were found to consume more SSB than those of mothers with a high educational level ( B = 0·63, P < 0·01). The association between maternal educational level and children's SSB consumption was found to be mediated by parental intake of snacks and SSB and home availability of SSB. The home environment seems to be a promising setting for interventions on reducing socio-economic inequalities in children's SSB consumption.
    The British journal of nutrition 05/2014; 112(03):1-10. DOI:10.1017/S0007114514001007 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Fluid intake, especially water, is essential for human life and also necessary for physical and mental function. The present study aimed to assess beverage consumption across age groups. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. Original research in English language publications and available studies (or abstracts in English) from 2000 to 2013 was searched for by using the medical subheading (MeSH) terms: ('beverage' OR 'fluid' [Major]) AND ('consumption' [Mesh] OR 'drinking' [Mesh] OR 'intake' [Mesh]) AND ('child' [Mesh] OR 'adolescent' [Mesh] OR 'adult' [Mesh]). Article selection was restricted to those papers covering healthy populations of all age groups in a nationwide sample, or from a representative sample of the population of a city or cities, which examined the trends or patterns of beverage intake and the determinants of beverage intake. Sixty-five studies were identified with respect to beverage consumption across age groups. The papers were screened by thoroughly reading titles or abstracts. Full-text articles were assessed by three investigators. Results: Total beverage intake varied between 0.6 and 3.5 L day(-1) among all age groups (males more than females). Plain water contributed up to 58%, 75% and 80% of the total beverage intake in children, adolescents and adults, respectively. Milk consumption was higher among children; consumption of soft drinks was higher among adolescents; and the consumption of tea, coffee and alcoholic beverages was higher among adults. Conclusions: Plain water is the main water source for all age groups and the consumption of other beverages varies according to age.
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 06/2014; 28(5). DOI:10.1111/jhn.12250 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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