Antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation
ABSTRACT The world faces an epidemic of atrial fibrillation and atrial fibrillation-related stroke. An individual's risk of atrial fibrillation-related stroke can be estimated with the CHADS(2) or CHA(2)DS(2)VASc scores, and reduced by two-thirds with effective anticoagulation. Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, are underused and often poorly managed. The direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate and factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban and apixaban are new oral anticoagulants that are at least as efficacious and safe as warfarin. Their advantages are predictable anticoagulant effects, low propensity for drug interactions, and lower rates of intracranial haemorrhage than with warfarin. A disadvantage is the continuing need to develop and validate rapidly effective antidotes for major bleeding and standardised tests that accurately measure plasma concentrations and anticoagulant effects, together with the disadvantage of possible higher rates of gastrointestinal haemorrhage and greater expense than with warfarin. The new oral anticoagulants should increase the number of patients with atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke who are optimally anticoagulated, and reduce the burden of atrial fibrillation-related stroke.
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- "None of the patients required prothrombin complex concentrates or hemodialysis. Although there is considered to be a lower risk of bleeding with D110,   in our series, the majority of patients with hemorrhagic complications were taking this dose. Therefore, despite D110 seeming to be the best option in patients at high risk of bleeding, clinical and laboratory data should be monitored for signs of such events. "
ABSTRACT: Introduction. Our aim was to analyze our clinical experience with dabigatran etexilate in secondary stroke prevention. Methods. We retrospectively included patients starting dabigatran etexilate for secondary stroke prevention from March 2010 to December 2012. Efficacy and safety variables were registered. Results. 106 patients were included, median follow-up of 12 months (range 1-31). Fifty-six females (52.8%), mean age 76.4 (range 50-95, SD 9.8), median CHADS2 4 (range 2-6), CHA2DS2-VASc 5 (range 2-9), and HAS-BLED 2 (range 1-5). Indication for dabigatran etexilate was ischemic stroke in 101 patients and acute cerebral hemorrhage (CH) due to warfarin in 5 (4.7%). Dabigatran etexilate 110 mg bid was prescribed in 71 cases (67%) and 150 mg bid was prescribed in the remaining. Seventeen patients (16%) suffered 20 complications during follow-up. Ischemic complications (10) were 6 transient ischemic attacks (TIA), 3 ischemic strokes, and 1 acute coronary syndrome. Hemorrhagic complications (10) were CH (1), gastrointestinal bleeding (6), mild hematuria (2), and mild metrorrhagia (1), leading to dabigatran etexilate discontinuation in 3 patients. Patients with previous CH remained uneventful. Three patients died (pneumonia, congestive heart failure, and acute cholecystitis) and 9 were lost during follow-up. Conclusions. Dabigatran etexilate was safe and effective in secondary stroke prevention in clinical practice, including a small number of patients with previous history of CH.BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014:567026. DOI:10.1155/2014/567026 · 2.71 Impact Factor
- Future medicinal chemistry 03/2013; 5(4):377-9. DOI:10.4155/fmc.12.214 · 4.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the availability of comprehensive evidence-based guidelines there are difficult and controversial areas in the management of venous thromboembolism. Institutions and even countries disagree on the importance of calf vein thrombosis, with some rigorously detecting and treating it and others deliberately not looking for it. The need to treat proximal deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is accepted but which patients with an unprovoked first event should have long-term anticoagulation has become a difficult clinical decision. We are uncertain how to reduce the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome seen in a substantial number of patients. How hard to look for an undiagnosed underlying cancer has become a contentious issue particularly in the United Kingdom following the recent publication of a guideline from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Whilst we are wrestling with these dilemmas we are entering an era of new anticoagulants and have to solve the logistical problems of introducing them into clinical practice despite cost pressures. These issues will be explored in this review.British Journal of Haematology 03/2013; 161(6). DOI:10.1111/bjh.12306 · 4.96 Impact Factor