Association between 24-hour urine sodium and potassium excretion and diet quality in six-year-old children: A cross sectional study

Nutrition Journal (Impact Factor: 2.6). 11/2012; 11(1):94. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-94
Source: PubMed


Limited data is available on sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake in young children estimated by 24 hour (24h) excretion in urine. The aim was to assess 24h urinary excretion of Na and K in six-year-old children and its relationship with diet quality.

The study population was a subsample of a national dietary survey, including six-year-old children living in the greater Reykjavik area (n=76). Three day weighed food records were used to estimate diet quality. Diet quality was defined as adherence to the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines. Na and K excretion was analyzed from 24h urine collections. PABA check was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The associations between Na and K excretion and diet quality were estimated by linear regression, adjusting for gender and energy intake.

Valid urine collections and diet registrations were provided by 58 children. Na and K excretion was, mean (SD), 1.64 (0.54) g Na/24h (approx. 4.1 g salt/24h) and 1.22 (0.43) g K/24h. In covariate adjusted models Na excretion decreased by 0.16 g Na/24h (95% CI: 0.31, 0.06) per 1-unit increase in diet quality score (score range: 1–4) while K excretion was increased by 0.18 g K/24h (95% CI: 0.06, 0.29).

Na intake, estimated by 24h urinary excretion was on average higher than recommended. Increased diet quality was associated with lower Na excretion and higher K excretion in six-year-old children.

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    ABSTRACT: Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods.
    Hypertension 03/2014; 63(5). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.02264 · 6.48 Impact Factor
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    Hypertension 03/2014; 63(5). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.02660 · 6.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To study the relationship between diet quality and 24 h urinary K excretion.Design K was measured in 24 h urine samples, while diet was studied using a 24 h recall method over two consecutive days. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). The body weight, height and body composition of all participants were recorded, and the BMI of each calculated.Setting Representative members of the adult Spanish population from the FANPE Study (‘Fuentes Alimentarias de Nutrientes en Población Española’; Dietary Sources of Nutrients in the Spanish Population).Subjects The final sample size was 329 participants aged 18-60 years.Results Participants with a 24 h urinary K excretion ≥93 mmol/d (group AP = adequate potassium) had greater self-reported K intakes, consumed more fruit and vegetables, had a more varied diet and had better HEI scores than those with a 24 h urinary K excretion <93 mmol/d (group IP = inadequate potassium). A significant positive correlation was seen between 24 h urinary K and dietary variety and the number of servings of fruits, vegetables and dairy products consumed, and between each of these and the HEI after correcting for age, sex, BMI, coefficient of activity, energy intake and the under-reporting of energy intake. AP participants were less likely to have an inadequate diet (HEI score <50) than IP participants (OR =0·439; 95 % CI 0·201, 0·961; P=0·039).Conclusions Diet quality, measured by the HEI, is correlated with 24 h urinary K excretion in Spanish adults.
    Public Health Nutrition 07/2014; 18(05):1-10. DOI:10.1017/S1368980014001402 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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