Article

Infection by chikungunya virus modulates the expression of several proteins in Aedes aegypti salivary glands

Parasites & Vectors (Impact Factor: 3.25). 11/2012; 5(1):264. DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-264
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Background
Arthropod-borne viral infections cause several emerging and resurging infectious diseases. Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, chikungunya is responsible for a high level of severe human disease worldwide. The salivary glands of mosquitoes are the last barrier before pathogen transmission.

Methods
We undertook a proteomic approach to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that occur in the salivary glands that could be responsible for viral transmission by using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis.

Results
We defined the protein modulations in the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti that were triggered 3 and 5 days after an oral infection (3 and 5 DPI) with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Gel profile comparisons showed that CHIKV at 3 DPI modulated the level of 13 proteins, and at 5 DPI 20 proteins. The amount of 10 putatively secreted proteins was regulated at both time points. These proteins were implicated in blood-feeding or in immunity, but many have no known function. CHIKV also modulated the quantity of proteins involved in several metabolic pathways and in cell signalling.

Conclusion
Our study constitutes the first analysis of the protein response of Aedes aegypti salivary glands infected with CHIKV. We found that the differentially regulated proteins in response to viral infection include structural proteins and enzymes for several metabolic pathways. Some may favour virus survival, replication and transmission, suggesting a subversion of the insect cell metabolism by arboviruses. For example, proteins involved in blood-feeding such as the short D7, an adenosine deaminase and inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase, may favour virus transmission by exerting an increased anti-inflammatory effect. This would allow the vector to bite without the bite being detected. Other proteins, like the anti-freeze protein, may support vector protection.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Abdelkader Namane, Dec 16, 2013
1 Follower
 · 
200 Views
  • Source
    • "Nevertheless, advances in genome sequencing throughput and technology have facilitated the examination of individual mosquito genes in a truly quantitative way. To date, there have been many studies examining vector proteomics and gene expression as they pertain to infection (Behura et al., 2011; Bonizzoni et al., 2012; Chen, Mathur, & James, 2008; Colpitts et al., 2011; Girard et al., 2010; Tchankouo-Nguetcheu et al., 2012, 2010). One in which the authors analyzed transcriptome expression of Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and Anopheles gambiae in response to infection with WNV, Wuchereria bancrofti, and nonnative bacteria demonstrated the utility of such methods to generate unparalleled amounts of quantitative data for analysis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. An inherently complex interaction among virus, vector, and the environment determines successful transmission of the virus. Once believed to be "flying syringes," recent advances in the field have demonstrated that mosquito genetics, microbiota, salivary components, and mosquito innate immune responses all play important roles in modulating arbovirus transmissibility. The literature on the interaction among virus, mosquito, and environment has expanded dramatically in the preceding decade and the utilization of next-generation sequencing and transgenic vector methodologies assuredly will increase the pace of knowledge acquisition in this field. This chapter outlines the interplay among the three factors in both direct physical and biochemical manners as well as indirectly through superinfection barriers and altered induction of innate immune responses in mosquito vectors. The culmination of the aforementioned interactions and the arms race between the mosquito innate immune response and the capacity of arboviruses to antagonize such a response ultimately results in the subjugation of mosquito cells for viral replication and subsequent transmission.
    Advances in Virus Research 01/2014; 89:39-83. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-800172-1.00002-1 · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The most frequently used technique in quantitative proteomics is two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). In quantitative 2-DE, the appropriate experimental design plays an important role in the detection of significant and reliable protein expression differences [12]. Despite that there are some limitations of the technology, such as offering a limited dynamic range of separated proteins, it has been used to investigate host cell proteome changes after infection with T. gondii tachyzoites [13,14], but little is currently known of the proteomic changes at differential time points in host brain tissues after infection with T. gondii cysts. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic pathogenic protozoan parasite, which infects approximately one third of the human population worldwide, causing opportunistic zoonotic toxoplasmosis. The predilection of T. gondii for the central nervous system (CNS) causes behavioral disorders and fatal necrotizing encephalitis and thus constitutes a major threat especially to AIDS patients. Methods In the present study, we explored the proteomic profiles of brain tissues of the specific pathogen-free (SPF) Kunming mice at 7 d, 14 d and 21 d after infection with cysts of the Toxoplasma gondii Prugniaud (PRU) strain (Genotype II), by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results A total of 60 differentially expressed protein spots were selected. Fifty-six spots were successfully identified, which corresponded to 45 proteins of the mouse. Functional analysis using a Gene Ontology database showed that these proteins were mainly involved in metabolism, cell structure, signal transduction and immune responses, and will be beneficial for the understanding of molecular mechanisms of T. gondii pathogenesis. Conclusions This study identified some mouse brain proteins involved in the response with cyst-forming T. gondii PRU strain. These results provided an insight into the responsive relationship between T. gondii and the host brain tissues, which will shed light on our understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis in toxoplasmic encephalitis, and facilitate the discovery of new methods of diagnosis, prevention, control and treatment of toxoplasmic encephalopathy.
    Parasites & Vectors 04/2013; 6(1):96. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-6-96 · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of Lyme borreliosis. Their salivary glands play a critical role in the biological success of ticks. To better understand the cross-talk between Borrelia burgdorferi and tick salivary glands, we analyzed protein expression in the salivary glands of Ixodes ricinus adult ticks that were infected by various strains of the B. burgdorferi sl complex. iTRAQ allowed the identification of more than 120 proteins, providing the first proteomic data pertaining to Ixodes ricinus salivary glands. Among these proteins, only 12 were modulated in the presence of various Borrelia strains. Most of them are up-regulated and are involved in cell defense and protein synthesis and processing. Down-regulated proteins are mostly implicated in the cytoskeleton. The DIGE analysis allowed us to identify 35 proteins and showed the down-regulation of 4 proteins. All 15 proteins were not modulated by all strains. Overall, these observations showed that the presence of Borrelia in tick salivary glands is a factor of stress for the protein machinery, and also that some Borrelia strains produce a dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, a protein from Borrelia, OspA, was found in infected salivary glands. The consequence of its presence in salivary glands is discussed. Lyme borreliosis is still the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. The geographical distribution of Lyme borreliosis is expanding, especially towards higher altitudes and latitudes. Human pathogenic spirochetes causing Lyme borreliosis belong to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. They are extracellular pathogens transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. The bioactive molecules present in tick saliva not only promote tick feeding, but also create an advantageous microenvironment at the tick bite site for survival and replication of Borrelia bacteria. Investigation of the tick-host-pathogen interface would provide new strategies to control tick-borne infections. We chose to analyze the interaction of several strains of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex with Ixodes ricinus salivary glands. We also investigated the presence of bacterial proteins in salivary glands. For these purposes, we undertook a proteomic study implying the complementary approaches of iTRAQ and DIGE. Our study allowed identifying several salivary markers of infection that were shown to vary according to the strain. Moreover, OspA, a bacterial protein was shown to be expressed in salivary glands and may be implied in the pathogenicity of some Borrelia strains.
    Journal of proteomics 11/2013; 96. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2013.10.033 · 3.93 Impact Factor
Show more