Network Mixing and Network Influences Most Linked to HIV Infection and Risk Behavior in the HIV Epidemic Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men
ABSTRACT Objectives. We evaluated network mixing and influences by network members upon Black men who have sex with men. Methods. We conducted separate social and sexual network mixing analyses to determine the degree of mixing on risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected anal intercourse [UAI]). We used logistic regression to assess the association between a network "enabler" (would not disapprove of the respondent's behavior) and respondent behavior. Results. Across the sample (n = 1187) network mixing on risk behaviors was more assortative (like with like) in the sexual network (r(sex), 0.37-0.54) than in the social network (r(social), 0.21-0.24). Minimal assortativity (heterogeneous mixing) among HIV-infected men on UAI was evident. Black men who have sex with men reporting a social network enabler were more likely to practice UAI (adjusted odds ratio = 4.06; 95% confidence interval = 1.64, 10.05) a finding not observed in the sexual network (adjusted odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval = 0.44, 3.91). Conclusions. Different mixing on risk behavior was evident with more disassortativity among social than sexual networks. Enabling effects of social network members may affect risky behavior. Attention to of high-risk populations' social networks is needed for effective and sustained HIV prevention. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 15, 2012: e1-e9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301003).
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ABSTRACT: Purpose Much attention has been given to the potential non-response bias that occurs in epidemiologic studies that attempt to enroll a representative sample. Most analyses surrounding non-respondents focus on individual-level attributes and how they vary across respondents and non-respondents. While these attributes are of interest, analysis of the social network position of non-respondents as defined by traditional sociometric measures (i.e. centrality, bridging) has not been conducted, and could provide further insights into the validity of the sample. Methods We utilized data from the Secunderabadi Mens’ Study, a whole network of Indian men who have sex with men (MSM) generated using cell phone contact lists of men approached using Time Location Cluster Sampling. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether demographic and behavioral attributes and in-degree (the frequency that a MSM was listed across all cell phone contact lists) were associated with being a respondent. Results 239 respondents were interviewed and 81 were approached but did not consent to the interview (“non-respondents”). Conclusions Respondents were more likely to have higher in-degree than non-respondents, adjusting for attribute differences (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.07, 1.34). This analysis suggests that the network position of non-respondents may be important when considering the potential impact of non-response bias.Annals of Epidemiology 07/2014; 24(7). DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.04.006
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:: Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) have the highest rates of HIV in the United States. Despite increased attention to social and sexual networks as a framework for biomedical intervention, the role of family in these networks and their relationship to HIV prevention has received limited attention. METHODS:: A network sample (N=380) of BMSM (n=204) and their family members (n=176) was generated through respondent driven sampling of BMSM and elicitation of their personal networks. The proportion of personal networks that were family was calculated and weighted logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between this proportion and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), sex-drug use (SDU) and group sex (GS); as well as intravention efforts to discourage these risk behaviors among their MSM social networks. RESULTS:: 45.3% of respondents listed at least one family member in their close personal network. Greater family network proportion (having 2 or more family members in the close network) was associated with less SDU [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.38(0.17-0.87))] and participation in GS (AOR 0.25(0.10-0.67)). For intravention, BMSM with greater family proportion were more likely to discourage GS (AOR 3.83(1.56-9.43) and SDU (AOR 2.18(1.35-3.54)) among their MSM friend network. Moreover, increased male family network proportion was associated with lower HIV-risk and greater intravention than increased female network proportion. CONCLUSIONS:: Nearly half of BMSM have a close family member with whom they share personal information. Combination prevention interventions might be made more potent if this often overlooked component of personal networks were incorporated.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 09/2012; DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318270d3cb
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ABSTRACT: Associations between social support network characteristics and sexual risk among racially/ethnically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM) were examined using egocentric network data from a prospective cohort study of YMSM (n = 501) recruited in New York City. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between social support network characteristics and sexual risk taking behaviors in Black, Hispanic/Latino, and White YMSM. Bivariate analyses indicated key differences in network size, composition, communication frequency and average relationship duration by race/ethnicity. In multivariable analyses, controlling for individual level sociodemographic, psychosocial and relationship factors, having a sexual partner in one's social support network was associated with unprotected sexual behavior for both Hispanic/Latino (AOR = 3.90) and White YMSM (AOR = 4.93). Further examination of key network characteristics across racial/ethnic groups are warranted in order to better understand the extant mechanisms for provision of HIV prevention programming to racially/ethnically diverse YMSM at risk for HIV.AIDS and Behavior 04/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10461-013-0468-2