The simultaneous binding of netropsin in the minor groove and Zn(2+) in the major groove of a DNA hairpin that includes 10 consecutive FdU nucleotides at the 3'-terminus (3'FdU) was demonstrated based upon NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), and computational modeling studies. The resulting Zn(2+)/netropsin: 3'FdU complex had very high thermal stability with aspects of the complex intact at 85 °C, conditions that result in complete dissociation of Mg(2+) complexes. CD and (19)F NMR spectroscopy were consistent with Zn(2+) binding in the major groove of the DNA duplex and utilizing F5 and O4 of consecutive FdU nucleotides as ligands with FdU nucleotides hemi-deprotonated in the complex. Netropsin is bound in the minor groove of the DNA duplex based upon 2D NOESY data demonstrating contacts between AH2 (1)H and netropsin (1)H resonances. The Zn(2+)/netropsin: 3'FdU complex displayed increased cytotoxicity towards PC3 prostate cancer (PCa) cells relative to the constituent components or separate complexes (e.g. Zn(2+):3'FdU) indicating that this new structural motif may be therapeutically useful for PCa treatment. An animated interactive 3D complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:32.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used for breast cancer treatment but causes serious side-effects including cardiotoxicity that may adversely impact patient lifespan even if treatment is successful. Herein, we describe selective conjugation of Dox to a single site in a DNA hairpin resulting in a highly stable complex that enables Dox to be used more effectively. Selective conjugation of Dox to G15 in the hairpin loop was verified using site-specific labeling with [2-15N]-2'-deoxyguanosine in conjunction with [1H-15N] 2D NMR while 1:1 stoichiometry for the conjugate was validated by ESI-QTOF mass spectrometry and UV spectroscopy. Molecular modeling indicated covalently bound Dox also intercalated into the stem of the hairpin and stability studies demonstrated the resulting Dox-conjugated hairpin (DCH) complex had a half-life > 30 h, considerably longer than alternative covalent and non-covalent complexes. Secondary conjugation of DCH with folic acid (FA) resulted in increased internalization into breast cancer cells. The dual conjugate, DCH-FA, can be used for safer and more effective chemotherapy with Dox and this conjugation strategy can be expanded to include additional anti-cancer drugs.
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