Cooperative stabilization of Zn(2 +): DNA complexes through netropsin binding in the minor groove of FdU-substituted DNA
ABSTRACT The simultaneous binding of netropsin in the minor groove and Zn(2+) in the major groove of a DNA hairpin that includes 10 consecutive FdU nucleotides at the 3'-terminus (3'FdU) was demonstrated based upon NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), and computational modeling studies. The resulting Zn(2+)/netropsin: 3'FdU complex had very high thermal stability with aspects of the complex intact at 85 °C, conditions that result in complete dissociation of Mg(2+) complexes. CD and (19)F NMR spectroscopy were consistent with Zn(2+) binding in the major groove of the DNA duplex and utilizing F5 and O4 of consecutive FdU nucleotides as ligands with FdU nucleotides hemi-deprotonated in the complex. Netropsin is bound in the minor groove of the DNA duplex based upon 2D NOESY data demonstrating contacts between AH2 (1)H and netropsin (1)H resonances. The Zn(2+)/netropsin: 3'FdU complex displayed increased cytotoxicity towards PC3 prostate cancer (PCa) cells relative to the constituent components or separate complexes (e.g. Zn(2+):3'FdU) indicating that this new structural motif may be therapeutically useful for PCa treatment. An animated interactive 3D complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:32.
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ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used for breast cancer treatment but causes serious side-effects including cardiotoxicity that may adversely impact patient lifespan even if treatment is successful. Herein, we describe selective conjugation of Dox to a single site in a DNA hairpin resulting in a highly stable complex that enables Dox to be used more effectively. Selective conjugation of Dox to G15 in the hairpin loop was verified using site-specific labeling with [2-15N]-2'-deoxyguanosine in conjunction with [1H-15N] 2D NMR while 1:1 stoichiometry for the conjugate was validated by ESI-QTOF mass spectrometry and UV spectroscopy. Molecular modeling indicated covalently bound Dox also intercalated into the stem of the hairpin and stability studies demonstrated the resulting Dox-conjugated hairpin (DCH) complex had a half-life > 30 h, considerably longer than alternative covalent and non-covalent complexes. Secondary conjugation of DCH with folic acid (FA) resulted in increased internalization into breast cancer cells. The dual conjugate, DCH-FA, can be used for safer and more effective chemotherapy with Dox and this conjugation strategy can be expanded to include additional anti-cancer drugs.Bioconjugate Chemistry 01/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1021/bc4005427 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Intracellular Zn2+ levels decrease during prostate cancer progression and agents that modulate intracellular Zn2+ are cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells by an incompletely described mechanism. F10 is a new polymeric fluoropyrimidine drug-candidate that displays strong activity with minimal systemic toxicity in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer and other malignancies. The effects of exogenous Zn2+ or Zn2+ chelation for enhancing F10 cytotoxicity are investigated as is the role of Omi/HtrA2, a serine protease that promotes apoptosis in response to cellular stress.METHODS To test the hypothesis that the pro-apoptotic effects of F10 could be enhanced by modulating intracellular Zn2+ we investigated cell-permeable and cell-impermeable Zn2+ chelators and exogenous Zn2+ and evaluated cell viability and apoptosis in cellular models of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC; PC3, C4–2). The role of Omi/HtrA2 for modulating apoptosis was evaluated by pharmacological inhibition and Western blotting.RESULTSExogenous Zn2+ initially reduced prostate cancer cell viability but these effects were transitory and were ineffective at enhancing F10 cytotoxicity. The cell-permeable Zn2+-chelator tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and enhanced the pro-apoptotic effects of F10. The pro-apoptotic effects of Zn2+-chelation in combination with F10 treatment were enhanced by inhibiting Omi/HtrA2 implicating this serine protease as a novel target for prostate cancer treatment.CONCLUSIONS Zn2+-chelation enhances the pro-apoptotic effects of F10 and may be useful for enhancing the effectiveness of F10 for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The serine protease Omi/HtrA2 modulates Zn2+-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and represents a new target for treatment of CRPC. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Prostate 11/2014; 75(4). DOI:10.1002/pros.22922 · 3.57 Impact Factor