Different types of intermittent pneumatic compression devices for preventing venous thromboembolism in patients after total hip replacement
ABSTRACT Total hip replacement (THR) is an orthopedic procedure which has been performed for decades now to reduce pain and improve function and quality of life in people with severe hip disorders. It shows excellent results in terms of both improved function and value for money. While this operation is very successful, patients are at high risk of developing venous thromboembolic disease such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in the immediate postoperative period. Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices are used to decrease the risk of such events. There are several different types of IPC device with variations in their design, including the rate and means of compression. We looked for randomized controlled trials which compared different types of IPC devices for preventing venous thromboembolism in patients after THR. We found one study with 121 participants comparing a calf-thigh compression device with a foot (plantar) compression device. There were no cases of symptomatic DVT or PE either in the calf-thigh compression group or the plantar compression group in the first three weeks after the THR. The calf-thigh pneumatic compression was more effective than plantar compression for reducing thigh swelling one week following surgery. The postoperative swelling in the calf-thigh pump group was reduced earlier than in the plantar pump group. However, other outcomes such as imaging-diagnosed asymptomatic VTE were not determined and it is not possible to draw reliable conclusions from this single study with a high risk of bias. We therefore suggest that more primary research is required to allow an informed choice of IPC device for preventing venous thromboembolism following THR.
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ABSTRACT: Messenger RNA (mRNA) localization and regulated translation can spatially restrict gene expression to each of the thousands of synaptic compartments formed by a single neuron. Although cis-acting RNA elements have been shown to direct localization of mRNAs from the soma into neuronal processes, less is known about signals that target transcripts specifically to synapses. In Aplysia sensory-motor neuronal cultures, synapse formation rapidly redistributes the mRNA encoding the peptide neurotransmitter sensorin from neuritic shafts into synapses. We find that the export of sensorin mRNA from soma to neurite and the localization to synapse are controlled by distinct signals. The 3' UTR is sufficient for export into distal neurites, whereas the 5' UTR is required for concentration of reporter mRNA at synapses. We have identified a 66-nt element in the 5' UTR of sensorin that is necessary and sufficient for synaptic mRNA localization. Mutational and chemical probing analyses are consistent with a role for secondary structure in this process.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2012; 109(12):4639-44. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1116269109 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome.Canadian Journal of Zoology 06/2013; 91(6). DOI:10.1139/cjz-2012-0258 · 1.35 Impact Factor