[Viral infection of hepatocytes.]
ABSTRACT Many viruses infect hepatocytes. On the one hand an understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms can be used to block infection by pathogenic viruses, on the other hand hepatotropic viruses can be utilized in gene therapy approaches for the directed delivery of genetic material into hepatocytes. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) follows a complex cell entry route utilizing at least four essential cell surface receptors on hepatocytes. Inhibitors of HCV cell entry are in early clinical development and could useful for the prevention of HCV reinfection of the graft after liver transplantation. Although much less is known about the cell entry of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus (HBV; HDV) it can be blocked efficiently by active or passive immunization. Moreover, a highly specific lipopeptide entry inhibitor based on a fragment of the HBV envelope is in clinical development. Finally, approaches are being developed to use hepatotropic viruses to correct genetic defects in hepatocytes. Especially adeno-associated virus based vector systems have recently shown promising results in proof-of-concept studies.
- SourceAvailable from: Veronique Descamps[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles are known to be in complex with lipoproteins. As a result of this interaction, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) has been proposed as a potential entry factor for HCV; however, its implication in virus entry remains unclear. Here, we reinvestigated the role of the LDLR in the HCV life cycle by comparing virus entry to the mechanism of lipoprotein uptake. A small interfering RNA targeting the LDLR in Huh-7 cells reduced HCV infectivity, confirming that this receptor plays a role in the life cycle of HCV generated in cell culture. However, kinetics of internalization were much faster for lipoproteins than for infectious HCV particles. Furthermore, a decrease in HCV RNA replication was observed by blocking the LDLR with a specific antibody, and this was associated with an increase in the ratio of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine in host cells. Nevertheless, a soluble form of the LDLR inhibited both HCV entry into the hepatocytes and its binding to the LDLR expressed on Chinese hamster ovary cells, suggesting a direct interaction between the HCV particle and the LDLR. Finally, we showed that modification of HCV particles by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) reduces HCV infectivity and increases HCV binding to LDLR. Importantly, LPL treatment also induced an increase in RNA internalization, suggesting that LDLR, at least in some conditions, leads to nonproductive internalization of HCV. Conclusion: The LDLR is not essential for infectious HCV particle entry, whereas the physiological function of this receptor is important for optimal replication of the HCV genome.Hepatology 04/2012; 55(4):998-1007. DOI:10.1002/hep.25501 · 11.06 Impact Factor
- Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 01/2008; 45(12):1281-328. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-963714 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For many inborn errors of metabolism, early treatment is critical to prevent long-term developmental sequelae. We have previously shown that systemic treatment of neonatal mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) mice with recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors results in relatively long-term expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) in multiple tissues, and a reduction in lysosomal storage. Here, we demonstrate that therapeutic levels of enzyme persist for at least 1 year following a single intravenous injection of virus in neonatal MPS VII mice. The level and distribution of GUSB expression achieved is sufficient to prevent the development of many aspects of clinical disease over the life of the animal. Following treatment, bone lengths, weights and retinal function were maintained at nearly normal levels throughout the life of the animal. In addition, significant improvements in survival and auditory function were seen in AAV-treated MPS VII mice when compared with untreated mutant siblings. These data suggest that AAV-mediated gene transfer in the neonatal period can lead to prevention of many of the clinical symptoms associated with MPS VII in the murine model of this disease.Gene Therapy 10/2001; 8(17):1291-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.gt.3301420 · 3.10 Impact Factor