Quadrivalent Ann Arbor strain live-attenuated influenza vaccine

MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
Expert Review of Vaccines (Impact Factor: 4.21). 11/2012; 11(11). DOI: 10.1586/erv.12.108
Source: PubMed


Influenza B is responsible for significant morbidity in children and adults worldwide. For more than 25 years, two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria, have cocirculated globally. Current influenza vaccine formulations are trivalent and contain two influenza subtype A strains (A/H1N1 and A/H3N2) but only one B strain. In a half of recent influenza seasons, the predominant circulating influenza B lineage was different from that contained in trivalent influenza vaccines. A quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (Q/LAIV) that contains two B strains, one from each lineage, has been developed to help provide broad protection against influenza B. Q/LAIV was recently approved for use in the USA in eligible individuals 2-49 years of age. This review summarizes clinical trial data in support of Q/LAIV.

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    • "tains the live, weakened Ann Arbor influenza strain. This weakened version can replicate efficiently only in limited conditions (Toback et al., 2012). The U.S. FDA (2012a) ap proved it in 2012 for administration to healthy children at least age 2 through adults up to age 49. "
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in combination with secondary bacterial infections.1-3 Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for everyone at risk by the WHO.4 In recent years, a number of countries have recommended influenza vaccination for all children older than 6 months although the uptake has been variable. The effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines in children has been questioned.5 Numerous studies have been published on the subject but outcome measures used vary with some studies using influenza-like-illness while others use culture or PCR-proven influenza, making comparison and meta-analyses difficult. In several randomised clinical trials, live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has been found safe, effective compared to placebo and consistently more effective than trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in children. In 2012, UK authorities announced plans to offer annual LAIV to all children aged 2-17 years and in July 2013 that a single dose of the vaccine will be offered to all 2-year-olds and 3-year-olds from September 2013. Although the evidence base supporting this decision is robust, some important questions remain unanswered. Such a campaign, if carried out successfully, could significantly reduce the burden of disease in children and, since children are thought to be important in the propagation of infection within the population and thus development of influenza epidemics, this initiative may well impact on disease in other age groups through indirect protection. However, few studies quantifying such effects have been done to date. In this paper, aspects of the implementation of universal childhood influenza vaccination are discussed.
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