TREM2 Variants in Alzheimer’s disease

All the authors and their affiliations are listed in the Appendix.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 11/2012; 368(2). DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1211851
Source: PubMed


Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in TREM2, encoding the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 protein, have previously been associated with an autosomal recessive form of early-onset dementia.

We used genome, exome, and Sanger sequencing to analyze the genetic variability in TREM2 in a series of 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 1107 controls (the discovery set). We then performed a meta-analysis on imputed data for the TREM2 variant rs75932628 (predicted to cause a R47H substitution) from three genomewide association studies of Alzheimer's disease and tested for the association of the variant with disease. We genotyped the R47H variant in an additional 1887 cases and 4061 controls. We then assayed the expression of TREM2 across different regions of the human brain and identified genes that are differentially expressed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and in control mice.

We found significantly more variants in exon 2 of TREM2 in patients with Alzheimer's disease than in controls in the discovery set (P=0.02). There were 22 variant alleles in 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 5 variant alleles in 1107 controls (P<0.001). The most commonly associated variant, rs75932628 (encoding R47H), showed highly significant association with Alzheimer's disease (P<0.001). Meta-analysis of rs75932628 genotypes imputed from genomewide association studies confirmed this association (P=0.002), as did direct genotyping of an additional series of 1887 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 4061 controls (P<0.001). Trem2 expression differed between control mice and a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Heterozygous rare variants in TREM2 are associated with a significant increase in the risk of Alzheimer's disease. (Funded by Alzheimer's Research UK and others.).

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Available from: John S K Kauwe, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "Statistical power was calculated by using the " Genetic Power Calculator " (http:// [13] considering an allelic OR of 2.5 [the lowest 95% confidence OR bound obtained in the original association of TREM2 p.R47H variant with AD [14]], a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 0.002 (the MAF available in 1000genomes dataset), a ¼ 0.05 and a disease prevalence of 4% [15]. For the Spanish dataset, the power to detect association was 44% and considering all series grouped, the power was >90% (Supplementary Table 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Essential tremor (ET) is the most frequent movement disorder in adults. Its pathophysi- ology is not clearly understood, however there is growing evidence showing common etiologic factors with other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (AD, PD). Recently, a rare p.R47H substitution (rs75932628) in the TREM2 protein (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2; OMIM: *605086) has been proposed as a risk factor for AD, PD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The objective of the study was to determine whether TREM2 p.R47H allele is also a risk factor for developing ET.
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    • "How does lack of TREM2 impact Ab accumulation? Although TREM2 expression has been reported in CNS cells other than microglia (Guerreiro et al., 2013b; Sessa et al., 2004), this finding is controversial (Jiang et al., 2014). Indeed, a recently published RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data set demonstrated that Trem2 is specifically expressed in microglia, but not other cells in the CNS under steady-state conditions (Butovsky et al., 2014). "
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    • "One ϵ4 allele triples the risk of AD, while two ϵ4 alleles increase the risk 15 times (160). Using genome-wide association studies (GWAS), scientists have attempted to detect new gene variants involved in the emergence of sporadic AD (161,162). In fact, a recent study detected 120 gene loci associated with AD (163). "
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