Genetic Variants and Associations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations With Major Clinical Outcomes

JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 30.39). 11/2012; 308(18):1898-1905. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.17304
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT CONTEXT Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater risks of many chronic diseases across large, prospective community-based studies. Substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D must be converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for full biological activity, and complex metabolic pathways suggest that interindividual variability in vitamin D metabolism may alter the clinical consequences of measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether common variation within genes encoding the vitamin D-binding protein, megalin, cubilin, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) modify associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D with major clinical outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Examination of 141 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a discovery cohort of 1514 white participants (who were recruited from 4 US regions) from the community-based Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements in 1992-1993 and were followed up for a median of 11 years (through 2006). Replication meta-analyses were conducted across the independent, community-based US Health, Aging, and Body Composition (n = 922; follow-up: 1998-1999 through 2005), Italian Invecchiare in Chianti (n = 835; follow-up: 1998-2000 through 2006), and Swedish Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 970; follow-up: 1991-1995 through 2008) cohort studies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Composite outcome of incident hip facture, myocardial infarction, cancer, and mortality over long-term follow-up. RESULTS Interactions between 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration were identified in the discovery phase and 1 involving a variant in the VDR gene replicated in independent meta-analysis. Among Cardiovascular Health Study participants, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was associated with hazard ratios for risk of the composite outcome of 1.40 (95% CI, 1.12-1.74) for those who had 1 minor allele at rs7968585 and 1.82 (95% CI, 1.31-2.54) for those with 2 minor alleles at rs7968585. In contrast, there was no evidence of an association (estimated hazard ratio, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.70-1.24]) among participants who had 0 minor alleles at this single-nucleotide polymorphism. CONCLUSION Known associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D with major health outcomes may vary according to common genetic differences in the vitamin D receptor.


Available from: Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Jan 15, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that genetically low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with increased mortality. Mendelian randomisation analysis. Copenhagen City Heart Study, Copenhagen General Population Study, and Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study. 95 766 white participants of Danish descent from three cohorts, with median follow-up times of 19.1, 5.8, and 7.9 years, genotyped for genetic variants in DHCR7 and CYP2R1 affecting plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations; 35 334 also had plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements. Participants were followed from study entry through 2013, during which time 10 349 died. All cause mortality and cause specific mortality, adjusted for common risk factors for all cause mortality based on the World Health Organization's global health status. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for a 20 nmol/L lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration were 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.25) for all cause mortality, 1.18 (1.09 to 1.28) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.12 (1.03 to 1.22) for cancer mortality, and 1.27 (1.15 to 1.40) for other mortality. Each increase in DHCR7/CYP2R1 allele score was associated with a 1.9 nmol/L lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and with increased all cause, cancer, and other mortality but not with cardiovascular mortality. The odds ratio for a genetically determined 20 nmol/L lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 1.30 (1.05 to 1.61) for all cause mortality, with a corresponding observational multivariable adjusted odds ratio of 1.21 (1.11 to 1.31). Corresponding genetic and observational odds ratios were 0.77 (0.55 to 1.08) and 1.13 (1.03 to 1.24) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.43 (1.02 to 1.99) and 1.10 (1.02 to 1.19) for cancer mortality, and 1.44 (1.01 to 2.04) and 1.17 (1.06 to 1.29) for other mortality. The results were robust in sensitivity analyses. Genetically low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were associated with increased all cause mortality, cancer mortality, and other mortality but not with increased cardiovascular mortality. These findings are compatible with the notion that genetically low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations may be causally associated with cancer and other mortality but also suggest that the observational association with cardiovascular mortality could be the result of confounding. © Afzal et al 2014.
    BMJ Clinical Research 11/2014; 349:g6330. DOI:10.1136/bmj.g6330 · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is a key regulator of calcium metabolism and has been implicated as a cancer preventive agent. However, clinical studies have revealed conflicting results on its cancer preventive properties, attributed in part to multiple metabolic and regulatory factors susceptible to affect individual responses to exogenous vitamin D. Vitamin D is obtained from dietary sources and sun exposure, which depends on numerous parameters such as skin type, latitude, and lifestyle factors. Focusing on thyroid cancer (TC), we document that genetic and epigenetic determinants can greatly impact individual response to vitamin D and may outweigh the classical clinical correlative studies that focus on sun exposure/dietary intake factors. In particular, genetic determinants innate to host intrinsic metabolic pathways such as highly polymorphic cytochromes P450s responsible for the metabolic activation of vitamin D are expressed in many organs, including the thyroid gland and can impact vitamin D interaction with its nuclear receptor (VDR) in thyroid tissue. Moreover, downstream regulatory pathways in vitamin D signaling as well as VDR are also subject to wide genetic variability among human populations as shown by genome-wide studies. These genetic variations in multiple components of vitamin D pathways are critical determinants for the revaluation of the potential preventive and anticancer properties of vitamin D in TC.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent findings suggest that vitamin D is a marker for outcomes in critical illness. The purpose of this review is to summarize current biological, observational and interventional evidence in the critically ill. Both biological and observational studies support the role of vitamin D deficiency in adverse critical illness outcomes. Interventional trials of critically ill patients show that to improve vitamin D status, high-dose vitamin D3 is required. Critically ill patients have a relatively blunted response to vitamin D supplementation compared to the general outpatient population. Toxicity from high-dose vitamin D in trials in the critically ill has been limited to mild hypercalcemia. Recent evidence suggests that treatment of severely vitamin D-deficient critically ill patients with high-dose vitamin D early in the ICU course may improve mortality. Vitamin D deficiency is a potentially modifiable marker for adverse outcomes in critical illness and critical illness survivors. Vitamin D supplementation is inexpensive and appears safe in critical illness trials. A well powered interventional trial is required to determine the definitive answer regarding the role of vitamin D supplementation in the improvement of critical care outcomes. Until such data are available, a cautious approach to correction of vitamin D status in the ICU is warranted.