Circulating 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.
ABSTRACT Background-Vitamin D status has been linked to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the optimal 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]-vitamin D) levels for potential cardiovascular health benefits remain unclear.Methods and Results-We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1966 through February 2012 for prospective studies that assessed the association of 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations with CVD risk. A total of 24 articles met our inclusion criteria, from which 19 independent studies with 6123 CVD cases in 65 994 participants were included for a meta-analysis. In a comparison of the lowest and highest 25(OH)-vitamin D categories, the pooled relative risk was 1.52 (95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.77) for total CVD, 1.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.71) for CVD mortality, 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.57) for coronary heart disease, and 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.10) for stroke. These associations remained strong and significant when analyses were limited to studies that excluded participants with baseline CVD and were better controlled for season and confounding. We used a fractional polynomial spline regression analysis to assess the linearity of dose-response association between continuous 25(OH)-vitamin D and CVD risk. The CVD risk increased monotonically across decreasing 25(OH)-vitamin D below ≈60 nmol/L, with a relative risk of 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.06) per 25-nmol/L decrement in 25(OH)-vitamin D.Conclusions-This meta-analysis demonstrated a generally linear, inverse association between circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D ranging from 20 to 60 nmol/L and risk of CVD. Further research is needed to clarify the association of 25(OH)-vitamin D higher than 60 nmol/L with CVD risk and assess causality of the observed associations.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for arterial hypertension, but randomized controlled trials showed mixed effects of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure (BP). We aimed to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation affects 24-hour systolic ambulatory BP monitoring values and cardiovascular risk factors. The Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial is a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted from June 2011 to August 2014 at the endocrine outpatient clinic of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. We enrolled 200 study participants with arterial hypertension and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels below 30 ng/mL. Study participants were randomized to receive either 2800 IU of vitamin D3 per day as oily drops (n=100) or placebo (n=100) for 8 weeks. Primary outcome measure was 24-hour systolic BP. Secondary outcome measures were 24-hour diastolic BP, N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, QTc interval, renin, aldosterone, 24-hour urinary albumin excretion, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and pulse wave velocity. A total of 188 participants (mean [SD] age, 60.1 [11.3] years; 47% women; 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 21.2 [5.6] ng/mL) completed the trial. The mean treatment effect (95% confidence interval) for 24-hour systolic BP was -0.4 (-2.8 to 1.9) mm Hg (P=0.712). Triglycerides increased significantly (mean change [95% confidence interval], 17 [1-33] mg/dL; P=0.013), but no further significant effects were observed for secondary outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation in hypertensive patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D has no significant effect on BP and several cardiovascular risk factors, but it was associated with a significant increase in triglycerides. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.Hypertension 03/2015; DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.05319 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate seasonality in onset and incidence of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in Stockholm, Sweden. A retrospective consecutive population-based case series of patients presenting to the emergency department with CRVO from January 2008 through December 2013 at the St Erik Eye Hospital. Date, age at occurrence and sex were recorded in the study cohort. A total of 854 patients presented with CRVO during the study period. Peak CRVO onset occurred during the winter/spring period and was significantly higher than during the summer/autumn period. The number of patients presenting by season were: 166 (28.8%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 25.3-32.6%) in winter, 172 (29.9%, 95% CI 26.3-33.7%) in spring, 131 (22.7%, 95% CI 19.5-26.3%) in summer, and 107 (18.9%, 95% CI 15.6-22.0%) in autumn (p < 0.0002). There were more males, accounting for 53.9% of subjects (460/856; p = 0.029). Mean annual incidence of CRVO was 2/10,000 for persons aged over 40 years, increasing from 0.25/10,000 at 45 years to 7/10,000 at 85 years (p < 0.001). The onset of CRVO in Stockholm, Sweden, had a significant seasonal pattern and most cases occurred during the winter-spring period. The highest incidence of CRVO was found in elderly people.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health focus in recent years and patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) reportedly have a high prevalence of the condition. Our objectives were to summarize definitions of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency used in the literature, and to determine the prevalence and magnitude of each in patients with SCD through a systematic review conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. From a PubMed search, 34 potential articles were identified and 15 met eligibility criteria for inclusion. Definitions of deficiency and insufficiency varied greatly across studies making direct comparisons difficult. This review provides evidence to suggest that suboptimal vitamin D levels are highly prevalent among those with SCD, far more so than in comparable non-SCD patients or matched control populations. Defining deficiency as vitamin D <20ng/mL, prevalence estimates in SCD populations range from 56.4% to 96.4%. When compared with results from the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, however, the general African American population appeared to have a similarly high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. African American patients with and without SCD were both substantially higher than that of Caucasians. What remains to be determined is whether there are adverse health effects for patients with SCD because of concurrent vitamin D deficiency.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119908. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119908 · 3.53 Impact Factor