Circulating 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.
ABSTRACT Background-Vitamin D status has been linked to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the optimal 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]-vitamin D) levels for potential cardiovascular health benefits remain unclear.Methods and Results-We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1966 through February 2012 for prospective studies that assessed the association of 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations with CVD risk. A total of 24 articles met our inclusion criteria, from which 19 independent studies with 6123 CVD cases in 65 994 participants were included for a meta-analysis. In a comparison of the lowest and highest 25(OH)-vitamin D categories, the pooled relative risk was 1.52 (95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.77) for total CVD, 1.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.71) for CVD mortality, 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.57) for coronary heart disease, and 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.10) for stroke. These associations remained strong and significant when analyses were limited to studies that excluded participants with baseline CVD and were better controlled for season and confounding. We used a fractional polynomial spline regression analysis to assess the linearity of dose-response association between continuous 25(OH)-vitamin D and CVD risk. The CVD risk increased monotonically across decreasing 25(OH)-vitamin D below ≈60 nmol/L, with a relative risk of 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.06) per 25-nmol/L decrement in 25(OH)-vitamin D.Conclusions-This meta-analysis demonstrated a generally linear, inverse association between circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D ranging from 20 to 60 nmol/L and risk of CVD. Further research is needed to clarify the association of 25(OH)-vitamin D higher than 60 nmol/L with CVD risk and assess causality of the observed associations.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D has been shown to play critical activities in several physiological pathways not involving the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. The ubiquitous distribution of the vitamin D receptor that is expressed in a variety of human and mouse tissues has strongly supported research on these "nonclassical" activities of vitamin D. On the other hand, the recent discovery of the expression also for vitamin D-related enzymes (such as 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α -hydroxylase and the catabolic enzyme 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase) in several tissues suggested that the vitamin D system is more complex than previously shown and it may act within tissues through autocrine and paracrine pathways. This updated model of vitamin D axis within peripheral tissues has been particularly investigated in atherosclerotic pathophysiology. This review aims at updating the role of the local vitamin D within atherosclerotic plaques, providing an overview of both intracellular mechanisms and cell-to-cell interactions. In addition, clinical findings about the potential causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and atherogenesis will be analysed and discussed.12/2013; 2013:620504. DOI:10.1155/2013/620504
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ABSTRACT: The essentiality of vitamin D for normal growth and development has been recognized for over 80 years, and vitamin D fortification programs have been in place in the United States for more than 70 years. Despite the above, vitamin D deficiency continues to be a common finding in certain population groups. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested as a potential risk factor for the development of preeclampsia, and vitamin D deficiency during infancy and early childhood is associated with an increased risk for numerous skeletal disorders, as well as immunological and vascular abnormalities. Vitamin D deficiency can occur through multiple mechanisms including the consumption of diets low in this vitamin and inadequate exposure to environmental ultraviolet B rays. The potential value of vitamin D supplementation in high-risk pregnancies and during infancy and early childhood is discussed. Currently, there is vigorous debate concerning what constitutes appropriate vitamin D intakes during early development as exemplified by differing recommendations from the Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intake report and recent recommendations by the Endocrine Society. As is discussed, a major issue that needs to be resolved is what key biological endpoint should be used when making vitamin D recommendations for the pregnant woman and her offspring. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 99:24-44, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Birth Defects Research Part C Embryo Today Reviews 01/2013; 99(1):24-44. DOI:10.1002/bdrc.21031 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AimsA significant proportion of cardiac surgical patients develop critical post-operative complications. We aimed to investigate the association of pre-operative 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels with major cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in cardiac surgical patients.Methods and resultsFrom January 2010 to August 2011, we consecutively measured circulating 25(OH)D in 4418 operated patients. Of the study cohort, 38.0% had deficient 25(OH)D values (<30 nmol/L) and additional 32.3% had insufficient values (30-49.9 nmol/L), whereas only 3.1% had values >100 nmol/L. The incidence of MACCE was 11.5%. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, the odds ratio of MACCE at deficient, inadequate, and high 25(OH)D levels was 2.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-3.79], 1.73 (95% CI: 1.01-2.96) and 2.34 (95% CI: 1.12-4.89), respectively, compared with 25(OH)D levels of 75-100 nmol/L. A U-shaped association with circulating 25(OH)D was also present for duration of mechanical ventilatory support and intensive care unit stay. Multivariable-adjusted 6- and 12-month mortality were higher in patients with deficient 25(OH)D levels compared with patients with 25(OH)D levels of 75-100 nmol/L.Conclusion Deficient 25(OH)D levels are prevalent in cardiac surgical patients in Central Europe and are independently associated with the risk of MACCE. Further research should clarify the potential of vitamin D supplements in reducing cardiovascular risk in vitamin D-deficient patients and also the mechanisms leading to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system in the small group of patients with 25(OH)D levels >100 nmol/L.Trial registration information: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier number: NCT01552382.European Heart Journal 01/2013; DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehs468 · 14.72 Impact Factor