Noninvasive management of the diabetic foot with critical limb ischemia: Current options and future perspectives

Therapeutic advances in endocrinology and metabolism 12/2011; 2(6):247-55. DOI: 10.1177/2042018811427721
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Foot ulcers are a major complication in patients with diabetes mellitus and involve dramatic restrictions to quality of life and also lead to enormous socio-economical loss due to the high amputation rate. The poor and slow wound healing is often aggravated by the frequent comorbidity of foot ulcers with peripheral arterial disease, making the treatment of this condition even more complicated. While the local treatment of foot ulcers is mainly based on mechanical relief and prevention or treatment of infection, improving perfusion of the impaired tissue remains the major challenge in peripheral arterial disease. While focal arterial stenosis is the domain of interventional angioplasty or vascular surgery, patients with critical limb ischemia and lacking options for revascularization have a much worse prognosis, because current treatment options avoiding amputation are scarce. However, based on recent research efforts, there is rising hope for promising and more-effective therapeutic approaches for these patients. Here, we discuss the current improvements of established therapies aimed at an improvement of limb perfusion, as well as the development of novel cutting-edge therapies based on stem-cell technology. The experiences of a 'high-volume center' for treatment of diabetic foot syndrome with a current major amputation rate of 4% are discussed.

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Available from: Norbert Weiss, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "Patients with signs of ischemia (decompensated ischemia) were seen by the interventional angiologist and the vascular surgeon. If vascular reconstruction or interventional radiologic procedures were not possible, prostaglandins, low-dose urokinase or autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cells (“stem cells”, intramuscular application) were applied in order to improve perfusion [8]. "
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    Current Cardiology Reports 06/2013; 15(6):363. DOI:10.1007/s11886-013-0363-5 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), as well as diabetic neuropathy, is a risk factor for the development of diabetic foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences and predictors of outcome parameters in patients with diabetic foot by stratifying these subjects according to the severity of PAD. In a prospective study, patients with new diabetic foot ulcers have been treated and investigated by structured healthcare. Subjects were recruited between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2007. All study participants underwent a 2-year follow-up observation period. The patients underwent a standardized examination and classification of their foot ulcers according to a modification of the University of Texas Wound Classification System. The severity of PAD was estimated by measurement of the ankle brachial index (ABI) and the continuous wave Doppler flow curve into undisturbed perfusion (0.9 < ABI < 1.3), compensated perfusion (0.5 < ABI < 0.9), decompensated perfusion (ABI < 0.5) and medial arterial calcification. A total of 678 patients with diabetic foot were consecutively included into the study (69% male, mean age 66.3 ± 11.0 years, mean diabetes duration 15.8 ± 10.2 years). Major amputations (above the ankle) were performed in 4.7% of the patients. 22.1% of these subjects had decompensated PAD. These subjects had delayed ulcer healing, higher risk for major amputation [odds ratio (OR) 7.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-21.2, p < 0.001] and mortality (OR 4.9, 95 % CI 1.1-22.1, p < 0.05). This prospective study shows that the severity of PAD significantly influences the outcome of diabetic foot ulcers regarding to wound healing, major amputation and mortality.
    Therapeutic advances in endocrinology and metabolism 06/2013; 4(3):83-94. DOI:10.1177/2042018813489719
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