Nebulized arformoterol: what is its place in the management of COPD?
ABSTRACT Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious global health burden. Comprehensive management of COPD includes both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions aimed at improving disease-related functional capacity, health-related quality of life, and survival. The primary medications used for treatment of COPD are inhaled bronchodilator drugs which are delivered directly to the patient's airways through a number of different mechanisms. Arformoterol, the (R,R) enantiomer of racemic formoterol, was the first long-acting beta agonist approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for nebulized delivery. We discuss the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and safety of arformoterol, and provide recommendations for its use during longitudinal management of patients with COPD.
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ABSTRACT: Inhaled drugs are deposited directly in the respiratory tract. They therefore achieve higher concentrations with faster onset of action and fewer side effects than when used systemically. Nebulized drugs are mainly recommended for patients that require high doses of bronchodilators, when they need to inhale drugs that only exist in this form (antibiotics or dornase alfa) or when they are unable to use other inhalation devices. Technological development in recent years has led to new devices that optimize pulmonary deposits and reduce the time needed for treatment. In this review we focus solely on drugs currently used, or under investigation, for nebulization in adult patients; basically bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, antibiotics, antifungals, mucolytics and others such as anticoagulants, prostanoids and lidocaine.Archivos de Bronconeumología 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.arbr.2014.05.014 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: The global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease guidelines recommend maintenance therapy using long-acting bronchodilators for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who have daily symptoms. Arformoterol is the (R, R) - enantiomer of the racemic formoterol and is more potent than (R, R/ S, S) - formoterol. Areas covered: Currently, arformoterol is one of two nebulized long-acting β-agonists on the market. It has a low incidence of cardiovascular side effects with incidence of arrhythmia and ischemia similar to placebo. β-adrenergic adverse effects are infrequent, numerically lower than formoterol, but have a quicker onset of action than salmeterol. There was no observed clinical tolerance over 12 months. arformoterol is safe in combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids, tiotropium and rescue inhalers. A 12-month Phase IV trial found no increased risk of respiratory death or COPD exacerbation-related hospitalizations. arformoterol can potentially benefit patients with hyperinflation and low inspiratory flow rates. Expert opinion: The introduction of the centers for medicare and medicaid services penalization for COPD readmissions may boost the appeal of long-acting bronchodilators as new discharge medications. With the advent of ultra long-acting bronchodilators, its potential as a once daily agent in isolation or combination with these new therapies needs further study.Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 01/2015; 14(3):1-10. DOI:10.1517/14740338.2015.998196 · 2.74 Impact Factor