Staphylococcus aureus Mupirocin and Chlorhexidine Resistance in Patients with Community-Onset Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

From the Departments of Pediatrics.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.57). 11/2012; 57(1). DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01633-12
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Decolonization measures, including mupirocin and chlorhexidine, are often prescribed to prevent Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of high-level mupirocin and chlorhexidine resistance in S. aureus strains recovered from patients with SSTI before and after mupirocin and chlorhexidine administration, and to determine whether carriage of a mupirocin- or chlorhexidine-resistant strain at baseline precluded S. aureus eradication. We recruited 1089 patients with community-onset SSTI ± S. aureus colonization. In addition to routine care, 483 patients were enrolled in a decolonization trial: 408 received intranasal mupirocin (with or without antimicrobial baths), and 258 performed chlorhexidine body washes. Patients were followed for up to 12 months with repeat colonization cultures. All S. aureus isolates were tested for high-level mupirocin and chlorhexidine resistance. At baseline, 23/1089 (2.1%) patients carried a mupirocin-resistant S. aureus strain and 10/1089 (0.9%) patients carried chlorhexidine-resistant S. aureus. Of 4 patients prescribed mupirocin who carried a mupirocin-resistant S. aureus strain at baseline, 100% remained colonized at 1 month, compared to 44% of the 324 patients without mupirocin resistance at baseline (p=0.041). Of 2 patients prescribed chlorhexidine who carried a chlorhexidine-resistant S. aureus strain at baseline, 50% remained colonized at 1 month, compared to 48% of the 209 patients without chlorhexidine resistance at baseline (p=1.0). The overall prevalence of mupirocin and chlorhexidine resistance is low in S. aureus isolates recovered from outpatients but eradication efforts were less successful in patients carrying a mupirocin-resistant S. aureus strain at baseline.

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