MRI findings in adolescent patients with acute traumatic knee hemarthrosis.
ABSTRACT : Physical examination may be inconclusive in adolescents presenting with an acute traumatic knee effusion because of pain and guarding. The purpose of this study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in adolescents with traumatic knee effusions and to compare injuries based on age, sex, and physeal maturity.
: All MRIs using a knee trauma protocol performed at our institution over a 2-year period were evaluated. One hundred thirty-one patients between the ages of 10 to 18 years of age with a clinical history of acute knee trauma and an effusion confirmed on MRI met our study inclusion criteria. They were divided into 2 age groups: 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 years old. Pathology was confirmed using clinical history, MRI, and any available surgical reports.
: Of the 131 patients with an acute knee effusion, there were 59 patients in the younger group (10 to 14 y old) and 72 patients in the older group (15 to 18 y old). In the younger group, patellar dislocations (36%), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears (22%), and isolated meniscus tears (15%) were the most common injuries. In the older group, ACL tears (40%), patellar dislocations (28%), and isolated meniscus tears (13%) were the most common injuries. ACL injuries represented 28% of injuries in males and 38% of injuries in females, whereas patellar dislocations represented 28% of injuries in males and 37% of injuries in females. There was a trend toward adolescents with active growth plates sustaining more patellar dislocations and adolescents with closed growth plates sustaining more ACL injuries. Forty-one percent of patients in this study underwent surgery.
: Patellar dislocation is a common injury in children who present with a traumatic knee effusion, especially in young adolescents and females. Adolescents presenting with a traumatic knee effusion should undergo MRI because of the high rate of positive findings missed by physical examination and plain radiographs that may warrant surgical repair or reconstruction.
: Level III.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the injury characteristics of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), and to analyse the correlations between the injury patterns of MPFL and articular cartilage lesions of the lateral femoral condyle in children and adolescents with acute lateral patellar dislocation (LPD). Magnetic resonance (MR) images were prospectively obtained in 127 consecutive children and adolescents with acute LPD. Images were acquired using standardised protocols and these were independently evaluated by two radiologists. Fifty-four cases of partial MPFL tear and 69 cases of complete MPFL tear were identified. Injuries occurred at an isolated patellar insertion (PAT) in 47 cases, an isolated femoral attachment (FEM) in 41 cases and an isolated mid-substance (MID) in four cases. More than one site of injury to the MPFL (COM) was identified in 31 cases. The prevalence rate of chondral and osteochondral lesions of the lateral femoral condyle were 23.4% (11/47) and 29.8% (14/47) in the PAT subgroup, 7.3% (3/41) and 9.8% (4/41) in the FEM subgroup and 25.8% (8/31) and 32.3% (10/31) in the COM subgroup, respectively. The PAT and COM subgroups showed significantly higher prevalence rate of chondral and osteochondral lesions in the lateral femoral condyle when compared with the FEM subgroup. The prevalence rate of chondral and osteochondral lesions of the lateral femoral condyle were 17.4% (12/69) and 30.4% (21/69) in the complete MPFL tear subgroup and 20.4% (11/54) and 13% (7/54) in the partial MPFL tear subgroup, respectively. The subgroup of the complete MPFL tear showed significantly higher prevalence rate of osteochondral lesions in the lateral femoral condyle when compared with the subgroup of the partial MPFL tear. Firstly, the MPFL is most easily injured at the PAT, and secondly at the FEM in children and adolescents after acute LPD. The complete MPFL tear is more often concomitant with osteochondral lesions of the lateral femoral condyle than the partial MPFL tear. The isolated patellar-sided MPFL tear and the combined MPFL tear are more easily concomitant with chondral lesions and osteochondral lesions of the lateral femoral condyle than the isolated femoral-sided MPFL tear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Injury 02/2015; 23. DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2015.02.001 · 2.46 Impact Factor
Article: Imaging following acute knee trauma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Joint injury has been recognized as a potent risk factor for the onset of osteoarthritis. The vast majority of studies using imaging technology for longitudinal assessment of patients following joint injury have focused on the injured knee joint, specifically in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury and meniscus tears where a high risk for rapid onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis is well known. Although there are many imaging modalities under constant development, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most important instrument for longitudinal monitoring after joint injury. MR imaging is sensitive for detecting early cartilage degeneration and can evaluate other joint structures including the menisci, bone marrow, tendons, and ligaments which can be sources of pain following acute injury. In this review, focusing on imaging following acute knee trauma, several studies were identified with promising short-term results of osseous and soft tissue changes after joint injury. However, studies connecting these promising short-term results to the development of osteoarthritis were limited which is likely due to the long follow-up periods needed to document the radiographic and clinical onset of the disease. Thus, it is recommended that additional high quality longitudinal studies with extended follow-up periods be performed to further investigate the long-term consequences of the early osseous and soft tissue changes identified on MR imaging after acute knee trauma.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 10/2014; 22(10):1429-1443. DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2014.06.024 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The defect of the femoral tunnel at the level of the physeal scar during transtibial and anteromedial portal (AMP) drilling for transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was compared. Five matched pairs of knees (n=10) were drilled, and computed tomography was used to evaluate tunnel position and size at the level of the physeal scar. Significant radiographic changes were observed, including tunnel defect area at the physeal scar: 0.44 cm (1.2%) in the transtibial group versus 0.99 cm (2.7%) in the AMP group (P=0.008). AMP drilling creates a larger and more lateral tunnel defect at the level of the physeal scar.Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B 03/2015; 24(2):106-13. DOI:10.1097/BPB.0000000000000143 · 0.66 Impact Factor