Mortality Trends from 2003 to 2009 among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural Western Kenya Using a Health and Demographic Surveillance System

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 11/2012; 7(11):e47017. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047017
Source: PubMed


Targeted global efforts to improve survival of young adults need information on mortality trends; contributions from health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) are required.

Methods and Findings
This study aimed to explore changing trends in deaths among adolescents (15–19 years) and young adults (20–24 years), using census and verbal autopsy data in rural western Kenya using a HDSS. Mid-year population estimates were used to generate all-cause mortality rates per 100,000 population by age and gender, by communicable (CD) and non-communicable disease (NCD) causes. Linear trends from 2003 to 2009 were examined. In 2003, all-cause mortality rates of adolescents and young adults were 403 and 1,613 per 100,000 population, respectively, among females; and 217 and 716 per 100,000, respectively, among males. CD mortality rates among females and males 15–24 years were 500 and 191 per 100,000 (relative risk [RR] 2.6; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.7–4.0; p<0.001). NCD mortality rates in same aged females and males were similar (141 and 128 per 100,000, respectively; p = 0.76). By 2009, young adult female all-cause mortality rates fell 53% (χ2 for linear trend 30.4; p<0.001) and 61.5% among adolescent females (χ2 for linear trend 11.9; p<0.001). No significant CD mortality reductions occurred among males or for NCD mortality in either gender. By 2009, all-cause, CD, and NCD mortality rates were not significantly different between males and females, and among males, injuries equalled HIV as the top cause of death.

This study found significant reductions in adolescent and young adult female mortality rates, evidencing the effects of targeted public health programmes, however, all-cause and CD mortality rates among females remain alarmingly high. These data underscore the need to strengthen programmes and target strategies to reach both males and females, and to promote NCD as well as CD initiatives to reduce the mortality burden amongst both gender.

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Available from: Caryl M Beynon, Oct 01, 2015
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    • "According to the report, tuberculosis remains among the top three killers of women [30]. In line with our findings, different studies have also reported the public health burden of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS among female population in sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia [2, 4, 11, 31–33]. These finds signal the need of more efforts to prevent tuberculosis related mortality among females. "
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    ABSTRACT: Methods. Under Kilite-Awlealo Health and Demographic Surveillance System, we investigated mortality rates and causes of death in a cohort of female population from 1st of January 2010 to 31st of December 2012. At the baseline, 33,688 females were involved for the prospective follow-up study. Households under the study were updated every six months by fulltime surveillance data collectors to identify vital events, including deaths. Verbal Autopsy (VA) data were collected by separate trained data collectors for all identified deaths in the surveillance site. Trained physicians assigned underlining causes of death using the 10th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We assessed overall, age- and cause-specific mortality rates per 1000 person-years. Causes of death among all deceased females and by age groups were ranked based on cause specific mortality rates. Analysis was performed using Stata Version 11.1.
    BMC Research Notes 09/2014; 7(1):629. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-629
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    • "The area typifies the disease burden of rural African communities [28]. Mortality among adolescents and young people is predominantly attributed to communicable diseases and injuries [35]. Nyanza Province also ranked highest amongst all provinces in Kenya on measures of physical and sexual violence against females, with 12% of women reporting their first sexual intercourse was against their will [36]. "
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    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79132. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079132 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information on trauma-related deaths in low and middle income countries is limited but needed to target public health interventions. Data from a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) were examined to characterise such deaths in rural western Kenya. Verbal autopsy data were analysed. Of 11,147 adult deaths between 2003 and 2008, 447 (4%) were attributed to trauma; 71% of these were in males. Trauma contributed 17% of all deaths in males 15 to 24 years; on a population basis mortality rates were greatest in persons over 65 years. Intentional causes accounted for a higher proportion of male than female deaths (RR 2.04, 1.37-3.04) and a higher proportion of deaths of those aged 15 to 65 than older people. Main causes in males were assaults (n=79, 25%) and road traffic injuries (n=47, 15%); and falls for females (n=17, 13%). A significantly greater proportion of deaths from poisoning (RR 5.0, 2.7-9.4) and assault (RR 1.8, 1.2-2.6) occurred among regular consumers of alcohol than among non-regular drinkers. In multivariate analysis, males had a 4-fold higher risk of death from trauma than females (Adjusted Relative Risk; ARR 4.0; 95% CI 1.7-9.4); risk of a trauma death rose with age, with the elderly at 7-fold higher risk (ARR 7.3, 1.1-49.2). Absence of care was the strongest predictor of trauma death (ARR 12.2, 9.4-15.8). Trauma-related deaths were higher among regular alcohol drinkers (ARR 1.5, 1.1-1.9) compared with non-regular drinkers. While trauma accounts for a small proportion of deaths in this rural area with a high prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, preventive interventions such as improved road safety, home safety strategies for the elderly, and curbing harmful use of alcohol, are available and could help diminish this burden. Improvements in systems to record underlying causes of death from trauma are required.
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