High-density genetic mapping identifies new susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis.

1] Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK. [2] National Institute for Health Research, Manchester Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Central Manchester University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester, UK. [3].
Nature Genetics (Impact Factor: 29.65). 11/2012; DOI: 10.1038/ng.2462
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using the Immunochip custom SNP array, which was designed for dense genotyping of 186 loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we analyzed 11,475 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (cases) of European ancestry and 15,870 controls for 129,464 markers. We combined these data in a meta-analysis with GWAS data from additional independent cases (n = 2,363) and controls (n = 17,872). We identified 14 new susceptibility loci, 9 of which were associated with rheumatoid arthritis overall and five of which were specifically associated with disease that was positive for anticitrullinated peptide antibodies, bringing the number of confirmed rheumatoid arthritis risk loci in individuals of European ancestry to 46. We refined the peak of association to a single gene for 19 loci, identified secondary independent effects at 6 loci and identified association to low-frequency variants at 4 loci. Bioinformatic analyses generated strong hypotheses for the causal SNP at seven loci. This study illustrates the advantages of dense SNP mapping analysis to inform subsequent functional investigations.


Available from: Luis Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Dec 23, 2013
1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by decreased androgen levels, which was the first hormonal abnormality described. Several studies indicated that steroidogenesis is directed towards endogenous glucocorticoids at the expense of androgens. The decisive step governing androgen synthesis is the 17,20-lyase activity of the CYP17A1 gene-encoded enzyme cytochrome P450 17A1. Here, we focused on the role in RA of the critical cofactor for 17,20-lyase activity, cytochrome b5, encoded by the CYB5A gene. Data sets of two genome wide RA association studies (GWAS) were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the CYB5A gene. Candidate SNPs in CYB5A were studied in a case-control study population of Slovakia. Expression analyses were done in synovial fibroblasts from RA patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and cytochrome b5-expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Steroid conversion was measured using radiolabeled substrates. The study identified the RA-associated intronic SNP rs1790834 in the CYB5A gene in one GWAS and confirmed the same SNP in our study. The minor allele reduced RA risk selectively in women (P = 4.1*10(-3); OR = 0.63, 95%CI [0.46-0.86]). The protective effect was confined to rheumatoid factor-positive (OR = 0.53, [0.37-0.75]) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive (OR = 0.58, [0.41-0.83]) cases, respectively. The protective allele doubles CYB5A mRNA-expression resulting in 2-3fold activation of steroid 17,20-lyase activity, and protective allele was accompanied by a higher density of cytochrome b5-positive cells in synovial tissue. CYB5A is the first RA susceptibility gene involved in androgen synthesis. Our functional analysis of SNP rs1790834 indicates that it contributes to the sex bias observed in RA.
    Arthritis Research & Therapy 12/2015; 17(1):574. DOI:10.1186/s13075-015-0574-9 · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although susceptibility genes for anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibodies (ACPA)-positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been successfully discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), little is known about the genetic background of ACPA-negative RA. We intended to elucidate genetic background of ACPA-negative RA. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS comprising 670 ACPA-negative RA and 16,891 controls for 1,948,138 markers, followed by a replication study of the top 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using 916 cases and 3,764 controls. Inverse-variance method was applied to assess overall effects. To assess overlap of susceptibility loci between ACPA-positive and -negative RA, odds ratios (ORs) of the 21 susceptibility markers to RA in Japanese were compared between the two subsets. In addition, SNPs were stratified by the p-values in GWAS meta-analysis for either ACPA-positive RA or ACPA-negative RA to address the question whether weakly-associated genes were also shared. The correlations between ACPA-positive RA and the subpopulations of ACPA-negative RA (rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive and RF-negative subsets) were also addressed. Rs6904716 in LEMD2 of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus showed a borderline association with ACPA-negative RA (overall p = 5.7 × 10(-8)), followed by rs6986423 in CSMD1 (p = 2.4 × 10(-6)) and rs17727339 in FCRL3 (p = 1.4 × 10(-5)). ACPA-negative RA showed significant correlations of ORs with ACPA-positive RA for the 21 susceptibility SNPs and non-HLA SNPs with p-values far from significance. These significant correlations with ACPA-positive RA were true for ACPA-negative RF-positive and ACPA-negative RF-negative RA. On the contrary, positive correlations were not observed between the ACPA-negative two subpopulations. Many of the susceptibility loci were shared between ACPA-positive and -negative RA.
    Arthritis research & therapy 04/2015; 17(1):104. DOI:10.1186/s13075-015-0623-4 · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip array. We also imputed HLA data with a previously validated imputation method to perform a more comprehensive analysis of this genomic region. The strongest association signals were observed in the HLA region, with rs477515 representing the highest peak (p = 4.05 × 10(-40), OR = 1.73). A multivariate model including class II amino acids of HLA-DRβ1 and HLA-DQα1 and one class I amino acid of HLA-B explained most of the HLA association with GCA, consistent with previously reported associations of classical HLA alleles like HLA-DRB1(∗)04. An omnibus test on polymorphic amino acid positions highlighted DRβ1 13 (p = 4.08 × 10(-43)) and HLA-DQα1 47 (p = 4.02 × 10(-46)), 56, and 76 (both p = 1.84 × 10(-45)) as relevant positions for disease susceptibility. Outside the HLA region, the most significant loci included PTPN22 (rs2476601, p = 1.73 × 10(-6), OR = 1.38), LRRC32 (rs10160518, p = 4.39 × 10(-6), OR = 1.20), and REL (rs115674477, p = 1.10 × 10(-5), OR = 1.63). Our study provides evidence of a strong contribution of HLA class I and II molecules to susceptibility to GCA. In the non-HLA region, we confirmed a key role for the functional PTPN22 rs2476601 variant and proposed other putative risk loci for GCA involved in Th1, Th17, and Treg cell function. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2015; 96(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.02.009 · 10.99 Impact Factor