Identification and prospective isolation of a mesothelial precursor lineage giving rise to smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts for mammalian internal organs, and their vasculature.
ABSTRACT Fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (FSMCs) are principal cell types of connective and adventitial tissues that participate in the development, physiology and pathology of internal organs, with incompletely defined cellular origins. Here, we identify and prospectively isolate from the mesothelium a mouse cell lineage that is committed to FSMCs. The mesothelium is an epithelial monolayer covering the vertebrate thoracic and abdominal cavities and internal organs. Time-lapse imaging and transplantation experiments reveal robust generation of FSMCs from the mesothelium. By targeting mesothelin (MSLN), a surface marker expressed on mesothelial cells, we identify and isolate precursors capable of clonally generating FSMCs. Using a genetic lineage tracing approach, we show that embryonic and adult mesothelium represents a common lineage to trunk FSMCs, and trunk vasculature, with minimal contributions from neural crest, or circulating cells. The isolation of FSMC precursors enables the examination of multiple aspects of smooth muscle and fibroblast biology as well as the prospective isolation of these precursors for potential regenerative medicine purposes.
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ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of fibrocytes in 1994 by Dr. Bucala and colleagues, these bone marrow (BM)-derived collagen Type I producing CD45(+) cells remain the most fascinating cells of the hematopoietic system. Despite recent reports on the emerging contribution of fibrocytes to fibrosis of parenchymal and non-parenchymal organs and tissues, fibrocytes remain the most understudied pro-fibrogenic cellular population. In the past years fibrocytes were implicated in the pathogenesis of liver, skin, lung, and kidney fibrosis by giving rise to collagen type I producing cells/myofibroblasts. Hence, the role of fibrocytes in fibrosis is not well defined since different studies often contain controversial results on the number of fibrocytes recruited to the site of injury versus the number of fibrocyte-derived myofibroblasts in the same fibrotic organ. Furthermore, many studies were based on the in vitro characterization of fibrocytes formed after outgrowth of BM and/or peripheral blood cultures. Therefore, the fibrocyte function(s) still remain(s) lack of understanding, mostly due to (I) the lack of mouse models that can provide complimentary in vivo real-time and cell fate mapping studies of the dynamic differentiation of fibrocytes and their progeny into collagen type I producing cells (and/or possibly, other cell types of the hematopoietic system); (II) the complexity of hematopoietic cell differentiation pathways in response to various stimuli; (III) the high plasticity of hematopoietic cells. Here we summarize the current understanding of the role of CD45(+) collagen type I(+) BM-derived cells in the pathogenesis of liver injury. Based on data obtained from various organs undergoing fibrogenesis or other type of chronic injury, here we also discuss the most recent evidence supporting the critical role of fibrocytes in the mediation of pro-fibrogenic and/or pro-inflammatory responses.
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ABSTRACT: Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) can lead to fibrotic changes in the peritoneum, characterized by loss of mesothelial cells (MCs) and thickening of the submesothelial area with an accumulation of collagen and myofibroblasts. The origin of myofibroblasts is a central question in peritoneal fibrosis that remains unanswered at present. Numerous clinical and experimental studies have suggested that MCs, through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), contribute to the pool of peritoneal myofibroblasts. However, recent work has placed significant doubts on the paradigm of EMT in organ fibrogenesis (in the kidney particularly), highlighting the need to reconsider the role of EMT in the generation of myofibroblasts in peritoneal fibrosis. In particular, selective cell isolation and lineage-tracing experiments have suggested the existence of progenitor cells in the peritoneum, which are able to switch to fibroblast-like cells when stimulated by the local environment. These findings highlight the plastic nature of MCs and its contribution to peritoneal fibrogenesis. In this review, we summarize the key findings and caveats of EMT in organ fibrogenesis, with a focus on PD-related peritoneal fibrosis, and discuss the potential of peritoneal MCs as a source of myofibroblasts. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 35(1):14-25. DOI:10.3747/pdi.2014.00188 · 2.20 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: User behavior based automatical navigation system on Android platform[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nowadays, navigation applications in smartphones are widely used in our daily lives. But the problem existing in using the applications is that a lot of operations between users and smartphones are needed, such as destination setting, options setting and zooming in/out. Potential dangers may bring to the users when they are walking on the street or especially driving. In this paper, we study providing an automatical navigation system, in which the number of users' operations is largely reduced. The navigation system can automatically predict user's future possible destinations and routes without any operation from users. The prediction is performed by analyzing both user's current position and historical tracing data. We implement the proposed system on the Android platform. The experimental results show that the application works effectively to provide anticipated routes and destinations for a single user.2014 23rd Wireless and Optical Communication Conference (WOCC); 05/2014