"Similarly, methods are being developed to design modules for spatial organization of the cell (Chau et al., 2012; Lim et al., 2012), metabolic pathways and microbial communities (Shong et al., 2012). At the same time, the present design framework needs to be improved with respect to how specifications, more detailed design and robust implementation are performed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic Biology is the "Engineering of Biology" - it aims to use a forward-engineering design cycle based on specifications, modelling, analysis, experimental implementation, testing and validation to modify natural or design new, synthetic biology systems so that they behave in a predictable fashion. Motivated by the need for truly plug-and-play synthetic biological components we present a comprehensive review of ways in which the various parts of a biological system can be modified systematically. In particular, we review the list of 'dials' that are available to the designer and discuss how they can be modelled, tuned and implemented. The dials are categorized according to whether they operate at the global, transcriptional, translational or post translational level and the resolution that they operate at. We end this review with a discussion on the relative advantages and disadvantages of some dials over others.
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