To examine the proposed disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnosis in a child psychiatric outpatient population. Evaluation of DMDD included 4 domains: clinical phenomenology, delimitation from other diagnoses, longitudinal stability, and association with parental psychiatric disorders.
Data were obtained from 706 children aged 6-12 years who participated in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study (sample was accrued from November 2005 to November 2008). DSM-IV criteria were used, and assessments, which included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures, were performed at intake and at 12 and 24 months of follow-up. For the current post hoc analyses, a retrospective diagnosis of DMDD was constructed using items from the K-SADS-PL-W, a version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, which resulted in criteria closely matching the proposed DSM-5 criteria for DMDD.
At intake, 26% of participants met the operational DMDD criteria. DMDD+ vs DMDD- participants had higher rates of oppositional defiant disorder (relative risk [RR] = 3.9, P < .0001) and conduct disorder (RR = 4.5, P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, DMDD+ participants had higher rates of and more severe symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (rate and symptom severity P values < .0001) and conduct disorder (rate, P < .0001; symptom severity, P = .01), but did not differ in the rates of mood, anxiety, or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders or in severity of inattentive, hyperactive, manic, depressive, or anxiety symptoms. Most of the participants with oppositional defiant disorder (58%) or conduct disorder (61%) met DMDD criteria, but those who were DMDD+ vs DMDD- did not differ in diagnostic comorbidity, symptom severity, or functional impairment. Over 2-year follow-up, 40% of the LAMS sample met DMDD criteria at least once, but 52% of these participants met criteria at only 1 assessment. DMDD was not associated with new onset of mood or anxiety disorders or with parental psychiatric history.
In this clinical sample, DMDD could not be delimited from oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, had limited diagnostic stability, and was not associated with current, future-onset, or parental history of mood or anxiety disorders. These findings raise concerns about the diagnostic utility of DMDD in clinical populations.
"ORIGINAL ARTICLE Very limited research is available on DMDD. Emerging evidence suggests that it is relatively common in clinical settings, with rates ranging from 26.0% to 30.5% (Axelson et al. 2012; Margulies et al. 2012). Only one study, to our knowledge, has investigated DMDD in community samples. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the inclusion of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in DSM-5, little empirical data exist on the disorder. We estimated rates, co-morbidity, correlates and early childhood predictors of DMDD in a community sample of 6-year-olds.
DMDD was assessed in 6-year-old children (n = 462) using a parent-reported structured clinical interview. Age 6 years correlates and age 3 years predictors were drawn from six domains: demographics; child psychopathology, functioning, and temperament; parental psychopathology; and the psychosocial environment.
The 3-month prevalence rate for DMDD was 8.2% (n = 38). DMDD occurred with an emotional or behavioral disorder in 60.5% of these children. At age 6 years, concurrent bivariate analyses revealed associations between DMDD and depression, oppositional defiant disorder, the Child Behavior Checklist - Dysregulation Profile, functional impairment, poorer peer functioning, child temperament (higher surgency and negative emotional intensity and lower effortful control), and lower parental support and marital satisfaction. The age 3 years predictors of DMDD at age 6 years included child attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, the Child Behavior Checklist - Dysregulation Profile, poorer peer functioning, child temperament (higher child surgency and negative emotional intensity and lower effortful control), parental lifetime substance use disorder and higher parental hostility.
A number of children met DSM-5 criteria for DMDD, and the diagnosis was associated with numerous concurrent and predictive indicators of emotional and behavioral dysregulation and poor functioning.
Psychological Medicine 01/2014; 44(11):1-12. DOI:10.1017/S0033291713003115 · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DSM-5 offers many changes in the criteria and categories used in clinical diagnosis. The provocative and sometimes controversial nature of the changes has enlivened debate in the mental health field about how we should best understand our clients. I selectively survey what is new in DSM-5, why changes were made, and what about them is so controversial. First, I summarize the main metastructural and organizational changes, including elimination of the multiaxial system and changed chapter groupings. Second, I survey the most important new categories of disorder and the most important changes to the diagnostic criteria for existing categories of disorder. I focus on particularly controversial changes, such as those to substance use and addictive disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Pros and cons are provided for changes in criteria as well as for the addition of new disorder categories, such as hoarding disorder and binge eating disorder. Finally, I offer a more in-depth review and analysis of the changes to the depressive disorders chapter, which was subject to some of the most intense controversies and had some of the most extensive changes.
Clinical Social Work Journal 06/2013; 41(2). DOI:10.1007/s10615-013-0445-2 · 0.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irritability is defined as a low threshold to experience anger in response to frustration. It is one of the most common symptoms in youth and is part of the clinical presentation of several disorders. Irritability can present early in life and is a predictor of long-term psychopathology; yet, the diagnostic status of irritability is a matter of intense debate. In the present article, we address two main components of the debate regarding irritability in youth: the misdiagnosis of chronic irritability as pediatric bipolar disorder, and the proposal of a new diagnosis in the DSM-5, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, whose defining symptoms are chronic irritability and temper outbursts.
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 12/2012; 35:S32-S39. DOI:10.1590/1516-4446-2013-S107 · 1.77 Impact Factor
Shanmuki Somayajula, Sudhindra Vooturi, Sita Jayalakshmi
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