New Disease Reports (2012) 26, 13. [http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2012.026.013]
First record of Ceratocystis fimbriata on Carapa
B.A. Halfeld-Vieira 1*, J.E. Zilli 2, K.L. Nechet 1, G.M.D. Pereira 3 and G.R. Souza 4
1 Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Rod. SP 340, km 127,5, CP 69, Jaguariúna, SP, 13820-000, Brazil; 2 Embrapa Agrobiologia, Rod.
BR 465, km 7, Seropédica, RJ, 23890-000, Brazil; 3 Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus Paricarana, Avenida Capitão
Enê Garcez, s/nº, Bairro Aeroporto, CEP 69304-000 Boa Vista, RR, Brazil; 4 Embrapa Roraima, BR 174, km 8, CP 133,
69301-970, Boa Vista, RR, Brazil
Received: 04 May 2012. Published: 19 Sep 2012. Keywords: crabwood, forest pathology
Figure 1Figure 2
Crabwood or andiroba (Carapa guianensis) is a medium to large tree
belonging to the family Meliaceae, widespread in tropical South America,
used for timber, furniture, and oil from seeds for cosmetic and
ethnomedicinal purposes. Despite its economic importance only one
disease caused by Pestalotiopsis macrochaeta has been reported
(Halfeld-Vieira & Nechet, 2006). In August 2008, during the course of
surveys in a native forest in São João da Baliza municipality in Roraima
state, Brazil, dying seedlings of C. guianensis were observed with
symptoms of a fungal infection on stems (Fig. 1) and petioles.
Only one fungus species was isolated from perithecia present in infected
tissue, forming olive brown cultures on potato dextrose agar (PDA). The
following morphological features were observed. Perithecia were dark
brown, globose, 112-200 μm, neck erect, 431-680 μm, with divergent
ostiolar hyphae (Fig. 2A, 2B); perithecial width at the base was 27-34 μm
and 20 μm at the apex. Acospores were “hat” shaped, hyaline, 5-7 x 4-5
μm (Fig. 2C). The anamorph corresponded to Chalara with hyaline,
cylindrical, catenulate endoconidia with truncate ends, 10-20 x 3.7-5 µm;
chlamydospores were pale to dark brown, ovoid, thick-walled, 10-15 x
10-12 µm (Fig. 2D). Based on these morphological characteristics the
fungus was identified as Ceratocystis fimbriata (Wingfield et al., 1993).
To confirm the identity of the pathogen, the internal transcribed spacer
(ITS) region of a representative isolate was amplified using ITS 1 and ITS
4 universal primers and sequenced (GenBank Accession No. JN051277).
Ribosomal DNA-ITS sequence data were found to have up to 98% identity
with C. fimbriata. To fulfil Koch’s postulates, pathogenicity tests were
performed in a greenhouse on two-month-old C. guianensis seedlings.
Stems were wounded with one superficial puncture with a needle tip, a
mycelium plug inserted and the wound covered with Parafilm. A PDA disk
was used as control and each treatment consisted of six plants kept under
greenhouse conditions. Seven days later the Parafilm was removed and the
progress of the symptoms was evaluated. After 10 days, the pathogen was
re-isolated from the stem lesions only on plants inoculated with mycelium
plugs, presenting symptoms and signs similar to those occurring in the
original infection. The culture of C. fimbriata was deposited in the fungal
collection of Embrapa Roraima, a unit of the Brazilian Agricultural
Research Corporation (access number CPAFRR515).
Ceratocystis fimbriata is a native soilborne pathogen in some parts of
Brazil and causes mortality in many economically important plants. In
recent years, significant damage on Eucalyptus and Tectona grandis (teak)
by this pathogen has been reported (Ferreira et al., 2010; Firmino et al.,
2012). These exotic species are commonly planted in agroforestry systems
with C. guianensis in Brazil. The high number of seedlings of C.
guianensis affected by this pathogen observed in the field indicates its
potential to have a significant impact on natural populations of this host
and to be a threat to this species in agroforestry systems.
Ferreira EM, Harrington TC, Thorpe DJ, Alfenas AC, 2010. Genetic
diversity and interfertility among highly differentiated populations of
Ceratocystis fimbriata in Brazil. Plant Pathology 59, 721-735.
Firmino AC, Tozze Jr HJ, Furtado EL, 2012. First report of Ceratocystis
fimbriata causing wilt in Tectona grandis in Brazil. New Disease Reports
[http://ndrs.org.uk] 25, 24.
Halfeld-Vieira BA, Nechet KL, 2006. First report of Pestalotiopsis
macrochaeta on Carapa guianensis. Plant Pathology 55, 304.
Wingfield MJ, Seifert KA, Webber, JF, eds, 1993. Ceratocystis and
Ophiostoma: taxonomy, ecology, and pathogenicity. St. Paul, MN, USA:
The American Phytopathological Society.
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To cite this report: Halfeld-Vieira BA, Zilli JE, Nechet KL, Pereira GMD, Souza GR, 2012. First record of Ceratocystis fimbriata on Carapa
guianensis. New Disease Reports 26, 13. [http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2012.026.013]
©2012 The Authors
This report was published on-line at www.ndrs.org.uk where high quality versions of the figures can be found.
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