The Role of Masculine Norms and Informal Support on Mental Health in Incarcerated Men
ABSTRACT Mental health problems, in general, and major depression in particular, are prevalent among incarcerated men. It is estimated that 23% of state inmates report experiencing symptoms of major depression. Despite the high rates of depressive symptoms, there is little understanding about the psychosocial factors that are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms of incarcerated men. One factor relevant to the mental health of incarcerated men is their adherence to traditional masculine norms. We investigated the role of masculine norms and informal support on depressive and anxiety symptoms among 123 incarcerated men. The results revealed that adherence to the masculine norm of emotional control were negatively associated with depressive symptoms while heterosexual presentation and informal support were related to both depressive and anxiety symptoms. High levels of reported informal support moderated the effects of heterosexual presentation on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Public health and clinical implications are discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: Christina Campbell
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- "Although traditional masculinity may exclude certain groups of individuals (e.g., Blacks, women, homosexuals) while privileging White men (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005; Wade, 2008), anyone is subject to it regardless of social status (Iwamoto, Cheng, Lee, Takamatsu, & Gordon, 2011; Iwamoto et al., 2012). This is important for some men of color, who, because of their social status, may be unable to " fully " attain ideals of traditional masculinity , yet are still subject to it. "
ABSTRACT: Although studies have shown that adherence to traditional masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity) affect men’s attitudes toward sexual health, there is little research on how men’s adherence to these norms affects them in the context of heterosexual, dyadic relationships. Among 296 young pregnant couples, we investigated the extent to which adherence to traditional masculine norms affected male and female partners’ own condom-related beliefs (i.e., condom self-efficacy, positive condom attitudes) and that of their partners. We tested an interdependence model using a dyadic-analytic approach to path analysis. We also tested for differences across gender and race/ethnicity (i.e., African American, Hispanic). Results showed that adherence to the antifemininity and toughness masculine norms predicted negative condom-related beliefs, whereas, overall, adherence to the status norm predicted positive condom-related beliefs. Men’s and women’s adherence to traditional norms about masculinity were associated with their partner’s condom self-efficacy, and moderated associations based on gender and race/ethnicity were detected. In contrast, each dyad member’s traditional masculine norms were not associated with his or her partner’s positive condom attitudes. Taken together, findings indicate that the roles of traditional masculinity and condom-related beliefs in sexual health should be addressed within the context of relationships and associations between masculine norms and that condom-related beliefs are not uniformly negative.Psychology of Men & Masculinity 06/2015; DOI:10.1037/a0039455 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most incarcerated individuals will return to the community, and their successful reentry requires consideration of their health and how their health will affect their families and communities. We propose the use of a prevention science framework that integrates universal, selective, and indicated strategies to facilitate the successful reentry of men released from prison. Understanding how health risks and disparities affect the transition from prison to the community will enhance reentry intervention efforts. To explore the application of the prevention rubric, we evaluated a community-based prisoner reentry initiative. The findings challenge all involved in reentry initiatives to reconceptualize prisoner reentry from a program model to a prevention model that considers multilevel risks to and facilitators of successful reentry. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print March 14, 2013: e1-e9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300961).American Journal of Public Health 03/2013; DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300961 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The shorter life span and poorer health of men compared with women is concerning, affecting spouses, families, and communities. Physicians and policy makers have identified a growing need for a gender-specific focus on the unique health needs of boys and men and accompanying services. Men's health has emerged as a new discipline that is responsible for a gender-specific approach to health-services delivery, government policy, research, and advocacy. The urologic community has taken a leadership role in this specialty by defining the issues that face men in the 21(st) century, bringing together disparate areas of clinical care and research, and collaborating with stakeholders (such as primary care physicians and specialists from other disciplines) to create and implement men's health initiatives.Nature Reviews Urology 07/2013; DOI:10.1038/nrurol.2013.161 · 4.52 Impact Factor