Novel Approaches to Corticoid Treatment in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Center for Genetic Medicine Research, Children's National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue Northwest, Washington, DC 20010, USA
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 0.93). 11/2012; 23(4):821-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.pmr.2012.08.003
Source: PubMed


Although prednisone has never been formally approved for use in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by regulatory agencies, its efficacy has been confirmed in trials dating from the 1980s. There is a strong need for optimization of both specific type of glucocorticoid (eg, prednisone, vs deflazacort or others) and the dosing regimen. Ideally an optimized regimen would maximize efficacy while minimizing side-effect profiles. A new trial, FOR-DMD, aims to address this gap in knowledge. In parallel, there has been progress in the area of "dissociative steroids," drugs that are able to better separate efficacy and side effects, providing a broader therapeutic window.


Available from: Kate Bushby, May 18, 2014
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    • "However, a broadly accepted GC dose–response relationship has not been defined [6]. Therefore, a large-scale prospective study using strict criteria has been started very recently to determine the optimal regime in DMD (FOR-DMD) [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the long-term efficacy of prednisolone (PSL) therapy for prolonging ambulation in Japanese patients with genetically confirmed Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). There were clinical trials have shown a short-term positive effect of high-dose and daily PSL on ambulation, whereas a few study showed a long-term effect. Especially in Japan, "real-life" observation was lacking. We utilized the national registry of muscular dystrophy in Japan for our retrospective study. We compared the age at loss of ambulation (LOA) between patients in PSL group and those in without-PSL group. Out of 791 patients' in the Remudy DMD/BMD registry from July 2009 to June 2012, 560 were matched with inclusion criteria. Of the 560, all were genetically confirmed DMD patients, 245 (43.8 %) of whom were treated with PSL and 315 (56.2 %) without PSL. There was no difference between the two groups regarding their mutational profile. The age at LOA was significantly greater (11 month on average) in the PSL group than in the without-PSL group (median, 132 vs. 121 months; p = 0.0002). Although strictly controlled clinical trials have shown that corticosteroid therapies achieved a marked improvement in ambulation, discontinuation of the drug due to intolerable side effects led to exclusion of clinical trial participants, which is considered as unavoidable. In our study, patients were not excluded from the PSL group, even if they discontinued the medication shortly after starting it. The results of our study may provide evidence to formulate recommendations and provide a basis for realistic expectations for PSL treatment of DMD patients in Japan, even there are certain limitations due to the retrospectively captured data in the registry.
    Journal of Neurology 09/2013; 260(12). DOI:10.1007/s00415-013-7104-y · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Clinical trial feasibility and recruitment studies have increased dramatically over the last 3–4 years leading to the development of potential treatment strategies for DMD, such as exon skipping [Aartsma-Rus et al., 2009]. The registries have also allowed for critical analysis of current treatment protocols like the use of corticosteroids [Hoffman et al., 2012]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disease, caused by the absence of the dystrophin protein. While many novel therapies are under development for DMD, there is currently no cure and affected individuals are often confined to a wheelchair by their teens and die in their twenties/thirties. DMD is a rare disease (prevalence < 5/10,000). Even the largest countries do not have enough affected patients to rigorously assess novel therapies, unravel genetic complexities, and determine patient outcomes. TREAT-NMD is a worldwide network for neuromuscular diseases that provides an infrastructure to support the delivery of promising new therapies for patients. The harmonized implementation of national and ultimately, global patient registries has been central to the success of TREAT-NMD. For the DMD registries within TREAT-NMD, individual countries have chosen to collect patient information in the form of standardised patient registries to increase the overall patient population on which clinical outcomes and new technologies can be assessed. The registries comprise more than 13,500 patients from 31 different countries. Here we describe how the TREAT-NMD national patient registries for DMD were established. We look at their continued growth and assess how successful they have been at fostering collaboration between academia, patient organisations and industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Human Mutation 08/2013; 34(11). DOI:10.1002/humu.22390 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Δ9,11 modifications of glucocorticoids (21-aminosteroids) have been developed as drugs for protection against cell damage (lipid peroxidation; lazaroids) and inhibition of neovascularization (anecortave). Part of the rationale for developing these compounds has been the loss of glucocorticoid receptor binding due to the Δ9,11 modification, thus avoiding many immunosuppressive activities and deleterious side effect profiles associated with binding to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. We recently demonstrated that anecortave acetate and its 21-hydroxy analog (VBP1) do, in fact, show glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor binding activities, with potent translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor to the cell nucleus. We concluded that Δ9,11 steroids showed novel anti-inflammatory properties, retaining NF-κB inhibition, but losing deleterious glucocorticoid side effect profiles. Evidence for this was developed in pre-clinical trials of chronic muscle inflammation. Here, we describe a drug development program aimed at optimizing the Δ9,11 chemistry. Twenty Δ9,11 derivatives were tested in in vitro screens for NF-κB inhibition and GR translocation to the nucleus, and low cell toxicity. VBP15 was selected as the lead compound due to potent NF-κB inhibition and GR translocation similar to prednisone and dexamethasone, lack of transactivation properties, and good bioavailability. Phamacokinetics were similar to traditional glucocorticoid drugs with terminal half-life of 0.35h (mice), 0.58h (rats), 5.42h (dogs), and bioavailability of 74.5% (mice), and 53.2% (dogs). Metabolic stability showed ⩾80% remaining at 1h of VBP6 and VBP15 in human, dog, and monkey liver microsomes. Solubility, permeability and plasma protein binding were within acceptable limits. VBP15 moderately induced CYP3A4 across the three human hepatocyte donors (24-42%), similar to other steroids. VBP15 is currently under development for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 02/2013; 21(8). DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2013.02.009 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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