Relationship between community prevalence of obesity and associated behavioral factors and community rates of influenza-related hospitalizations in the United States
ABSTRACT Please cite this paper as: Charland et al.(2012) Relationship between community prevalence of obesity and associated behavioral factors and community rates of influenza-related hospitalizations in the United States. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12019. Background Findings from studies examining the association between obesity and acute respiratory infection are inconsistent. Few studies have assessed the relationship between obesity-related behavioral factors, such as diet and exercise, and risk of acute respiratory infection. Objective To determine whether community prevalence of obesity, low fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are associated with influenza-related hospitalization rates. Methods Using data from 274 US counties, from 2002 to 2008, we regressed county influenza-related hospitalization rates on county prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30), low fruit/vegetable consumption (<5 servings/day), and physical inactivity (<30 minutes/month recreational exercise), while adjusting for community-level confounders such as insurance coverage and the number of primary care physicians per 100 000 population. Results A 5% increase in obesity prevalence was associated with a 12% increase in influenza-related hospitalization rates [adjusted rate ratio (ARR) 1·12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·07, 1·17]. Similarly, a 5% increase in the prevalence of low fruit/vegetable consumption and physical inactivity was associated with an increase of 12% (ARR 1·12, 95% CI 1·08, 1·17) and 11% (ARR 1·11, 95% CI 1·07, 1·16), respectively. When all three variables were included in the same model, a 5% increase in prevalence of obesity, low fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity was associated with 6%, 8%, and 7% increases in influenza-related hospitalization rates, respectively. Conclusions Communities with a greater prevalence of obesity were more likely to have high influenza-related hospitalization rates. Similarly, less physically active populations, with lower fruit/vegetable consumption, tended to have higher influenza-related hospitalization rates, even after accounting for obesity.
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ABSTRACT: The relationship of vitamin A deficiency and child survival has been documented in a number of studies but not in others, yet the relationship of vitamin A with child morbidity remains controversial. We prospectively examined the relationship of dietary vitamin A intake and the incidences of diarrhea and respiratory infection among 28,753 Sudanese children between the ages of 6 mo and 6 y. Total dietary vitamin A intake was strongly and inversely associated with the risk of diarrhea (multivariate risk in top relative to bottom quintile = 0.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.47-0.72); we also observed a strong inverse association with the risk of having cough and fever (0.60, 0.45-0.81). On the other hand, we noted a significantly positive association of dietary vitamin A intake and incidence of cough alone (1.69, 1.52-1.88), a sign that may be assocsated with a healthy respiratory epithelium. Vitamin A intake was also negatively associated with the risk of measles. These prospective data emphasize the importance of adequate dietary vitamin A intake to protect the health of children in developing countries.Journal of Nutrition 06/1995; 125(5):1211-21. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This one year prospective multicentre study was designed to determine the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. It was carried out in primary health care centres and three reference hospitals, located in the 'Maresme' region (Barcelona, Spain) serving a population of 39,733 subjects over 13 years of age. Patients suspected of having contracted community-acquired pneumonia were visited by their family doctors and referred to the three reference hospitals for confirmation of the diagnosis. Patients attending the emergency services of these hospitals were also included. Urine and blood samples were obtained for culture, antigen detection, blood count, serological tests, blood gases and biochemical profile. The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia was made in 105 patients. Forty-six patients had an identifiable microbial etiology. Chlamydia pneumoniae was the most common pathogen (16 cases) followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (13 cases) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (8 cases). In conclusion; the annual incidence rate of community-acquired pneumonia in adults in this area was 2.6 cases per 1,000 inhabitants and Chlamydia pneumoniae was the most frequent causative pathogen.European Respiratory Journal 02/1993; 6(1):14-8. · 7.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine whether the higher hospital admission rates for chronic medical conditions such as asthma, hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes in low-income communities resulted from community differences in access to care, prevalence of the diseases, propensity to seek care, or physician admitting style. Analysis of California hospital discharge data. We calculated the hospitalization rates for these five chronic conditions for the 250 ZIP code clusters that define urban California. We performed a random-digit telephone survey among adults residing in a random sample of 41 of these urban ZIP code clusters stratified by admission rates and a mailed survey of generalist and emergency physicians who practiced in the same 41 areas. Community based. A total of 6674 English- and Spanish-speaking adults aged 18 through 64 years residing in the 41 areas were asked about their access to care, their chronic medical conditions, and their propensity to seek health care. Physician admitting style was measured with written clinical vignettes among 723 generalist and emergency physicians practicing in the same communities. We compared respondents' reports of access to medical care in an area with the area's cumulative admission rate for these five chronic conditions. We then tested whether access to medical care remained independently associated with preventable hospitalization rates after controlling for the prevalence of the conditions, health care seeking, and physician practice style. Access to care was inversely associated with the hospitalization rates for the five chronic medical conditions (R2 = 0.50; P < .001). In a multivariate analysis that included a measure of access, the prevalence of conditions, health care seeking, and physician practice style to predict cumulative hospitalization rates for chronic medical conditions, both self-rated access to care (P < .002) and the prevalence of the conditions (P < .03) remained independent predictors. Communities where people perceive poor access to medical care have higher rates of hospitalization for chronic diseases. Improving access to care is more likely than changing patients' propensity to seek health care or eliminating variation in physician practice style to reduce hospitalization rates for chronic conditions.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/1995; 274(4):305-11. DOI:10.1016/1062-1458(96)81082-8 · 30.39 Impact Factor