A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Vitamin K1 Ointment for the Treatment of Patients with Cetuximab-induced Acneiform Eruption
ABSTRACT A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the efficacy and safety of vitamin K1 ointment for the treatment of patients with cetuximab-induced acneiform eruption has started. Vitamin K1 ointment and placebo are applied twice daily for 8 consecutive weeks after the development of acneiform eruptions. Vitamin K1 ointment is applied in the middle of one side (face, neck or chest) and placebo is applied to the other side. The primary endpoint is the regression rate of acneiform eruptions on right- and left-side lesions in the same patient, compared with baseline at the final evaluation in the 10-week trial. The secondary endpoints include adverse events of acneiform eruption and other adverse events.
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ABSTRACT: In order to obtain insights into the evolution of colorless (apochlorotic) diatoms, we investigated newly established apochlorotic strains of Nitzschia spp. using light and electron microscopy and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Fluorescence microscopic observations demonstrated that the apochlorotic diatoms lack chlorophylls. Transmission electron microscopy of two apochlorotic strains also demonstrated that their plastids lacked thylakoids; instead, having four-membrane-bound organelles without thylakoids, similar to nonphotosynthetic plastid remnants. From the apochlorotic strains, we also found plastid small subunit rRNA genes that were unusually long branched in phylogenetic analyses, as observed in other nonphotosynthetic plastids. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the nucleus-encoded large subunit rRNA genes showed eight distinct lineages for apochlorotic diatoms. The eight apochlorotic lineages were not monophyletic, suggesting that the loss of photosynthesis took place multiple times independently within Nitzschia. Several diatoms, including Nitzschia spp., are mixotrophic, which is an expected mode of nutrition that would help explain the evolutionary switch from a photosynthetic lifestyle to a heterotrophic lifestyle.Phycological Research 12/2014; 63(1):n/a-n/a. DOI:10.1111/pre.12072 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae are principally associated with arthropods. Recently, endosymbionts of the Rickettsiaceae have been found in non-phagotrophic cells of the volvocalean green algae Carteria cerasiformis, Pleodorina japonica, and Volvox carteri. Such endosymbionts were present in only C. cerasiformis strain NIES-425 and V. carteri strain UTEX 2180, of various strains of Carteria and V. carteri examined, suggesting that rickettsial endosymbionts may have been transmitted to only a few algal strains very recently. However, in preliminary work, we detected a sequence similar to that of a rickettsial gene in the nuclear genome of V. carteri strain EVE. Here we explored the origin of the rickettsial gene-like sequences in the endosymbiont-lacking V. carteri strain EVE, by performing comparative analyses on 13 strains of V. carteri. By reference to our ongoing genomic sequence of rickettsial endosymbionts in C. cerasiformis strain NIES-425 cells, we confirmed that an approximately 9-kbp DNA sequence encompassing a region similar to that of four rickettsial genes was present in the nuclear genome of V. carteri strain EVE. Phylogenetic analyses, and comparisons of the synteny of rickettsial gene-like sequences from various strains of V. carteri, indicated that the rickettsial gene-like sequences in the nuclear genome of V. carteri strain EVE were closely related to rickettsial gene sequences of P. japonica, rather than those of V. carteri strain UTEX 2180. At least two different rickettsial organisms may have invaded the V. carteri lineage, one of which may be the direct ancestor of the endosymbiont of V. carteri strain UTEX 2180, whereas the other may be closely related to the endosymbiont of P. japonica. Endosymbiotic gene transfer from the latter rickettsial organism may have occurred in an ancestor of V. carteri. Thus, the rickettsiae may be widely associated with V. carteri, and likely have often been lost during host evolution.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0116192. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116192 · 3.23 Impact Factor
- 01/2015; 30(sup):1-188. DOI:10.4490/algae.2015.30.S.S1