To evaluate the efficacy, safety, biomarkers, and pharmacokinetics of rilotumumab, a fully human, monoclonal antibody against hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/scatter factor, combined with mitoxantrone and prednisone (MP) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
This double-blinded phase II study randomized (1:1:1) patients with progressive, taxane-refractory CRPC to receive MP (12 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1, 5 mg twice a day orally days 1-21, respectively) plus 15 mg/kg rilotumumab, 7.5 mg/kg rilotumumab, or placebo (i.v. day 1) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS).
One hundred and forty-four patients were randomized. Median OS was 12.2 versus 11.1 months [HR, 1.10; 80% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-1.48] in the combined rilotumumab versus control arms. Median progression-free survival was 3.0 versus 2.9 months (HR, 1.02; 80% CI, 0.79-1.31). Treatment appeared well tolerated with peripheral edema (24% vs. 8%) being more common with rilotumumab. A trend toward unfavorable OS was observed in patients with high tumor MET expression regardless of treatment. Soluble MET levels increased in all treatment arms. Total HGF levels increased in the rilotumumab arms. Rilotumumab showed linear pharmacokinetics when co-administered with MP.
Rilotumumab plus MP had manageable toxicities and showed no efficacy improvements in this estimation study. High tumor MET expression may identify patients with CRPC with poorer prognosis.
"Susceptibility to pre-analytical variables such as sample type, tissue fixation and processing and the subjectivity of interpretation can be liabilities for IHC. These considerations coupled with the detrimental outcomes seen in patients with low levels of MET expression treated with MET-targeted drugs will demand stringent quality control with respect to the performance and interpretation of IHC in GEC [47, 48, 62]. IHC assays to determine HER2 status in GEC have been in clinical practice as companion diagnostic assays for around three years and have taught us about the benefits and challenges of such an approach. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant activation of the HGF/MET signaling axis has been strongly implicated in the malignant transformation and progression of gastroesophageal cancer (GEC). MET receptor overexpression in tumor samples from GEC patients has been consistently correlated with an aggressive metastatic phenotype and poor prognosis. In preclinical GEC models, abrogation of HGF/MET signaling has been shown to induce tumor regression as well as inhibition of metastatic dissemination. Promising clinical results in patient subsets in which MET is overexpressed have spurned several randomized studies of HGF/MET-directed agents, including two pivotal global Phase III trials. Available data highlight the need for predictive biomarkers in order to select patients most likely to benefit from HGF/MET inhibition. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of mechanisms of MET activation in GEC, the current status of the clinical evaluation of MET-targeted therapies in GEC, characteristics of ongoing randomized GEC trials and the associated efforts to identify and validate biomarkers. We also discuss the considerations and challenges for HGF/MET inhibitor drug development in the GEC setting.
"In contrast BMS-777607, another MET inhibitor, did not significantly affect the proliferation of PCa cells but inhibited their invasiveness and migration . In the clinic, a number of agents that selectively target MET have failed to show a substantive clinical benefit in patients with CRPC [19,20]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including MET and VEGFR2. In a phase II clinical trial in advanced prostate cancer (PCa), cabozantinib treatment improved bone scans in 68% of evaluable patients. Our studies aimed to determine the expression of cabozantinib targets during PCa progression and to evaluate its efficacy in hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant PCa in preclinical models while delineating its effects on tumor and bone. Using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays containing normal prostate, primary PCa, and soft tissue and bone metastases, our data show that levels of MET, P-MET, and VEGFR2 are increasing during PCa progression. Our data also show that the expression of cabozantinib targets are particularly pronounced in bone metastases. To evaluate cabozantinib efficacy on PCa growth in the bone environment and in soft tissues we used androgen-sensitive LuCaP 23.1 and castration-resistant C4-2B PCa tumors. In vivo, cabozantinib inhibited the growth of PCa in bone as well as growth of subcutaneous tumors. Furthermore, cabozantinib treatment attenuated the bone response to the tumor and resulted in increased normal bone volume. In summary, the expression pattern of cabozantinib targets in primary and castration-resistant metastatic PCa, and its efficacy in two different models of PCa suggest that this agent has a strong potential for the effective treatment of PCa at different stages of the disease.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78881. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078881 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Met receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is an attractive oncology therapeutic target. Met and its ligand, HGF, play a central role in signaling pathways that are exploited during the oncogenic process, including regulation of cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and cancer stem cell regulation. Elevated Met and HGF as well as numerous Met genetic alterations have been reported in human cancers and correlate with poor outcome. Alterations of pathways that regulate Met, such as the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl are also likely to activate Met in the oncogenic setting. Moreover, interactive crosstalk between Met and other receptors such as EGFR, HER2 and VEGFR, underlies a key role for Met in resistance to other RTK-targeted therapies. A large body of preclinical and clinical data exists that supports the use of either antibodies or small molecule inhibitors that target Met or HGF as oncology therapeutics. The prognostic potential of Met expression has been suggested from studies in numerous cancers including lung, renal, liver, head and neck, stomach, and breast. Clinical trials using Met inhibitors indicate that the level of Met expression is a determinant of trial outcome, a finding that is actively under investigation in multiple clinical scenarios. Research in Met prognostics and predictors of drug response is now shifting toward more sophisticated methodologies suitable for development as validated and effective biomarkers that can be partnered with therapeutics to improve patient survival.
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