Most agronomic traits are governed by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and exhibit continuous distribution in a segregating population. The hereditary characteristics of these traits are more complicated than those of monogenic traits. Detection and isolation of these QTLs can greatly improve crop production throughout the world. In recent times, significant progress has been made toward understanding the molecular basis underlying quantitative traits. Herein, we describe a QTL-mapping protocol for detecting and cloning a major QTL regulating rice shoot K(+) concentration under salt stress conditions. This QTL-mapping approach combined with the marker-assisted selection technique can be applied for the elucidation of complex traits in rice and other cereal crops.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Next-generation sequencing technologies provide opportunities to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic differences, such as abiotic stress response, even in the closely related cultivars via identification of large number of DNA polymorphisms. We performed whole-genome resequencing of three rice cultivars with contrasting responses to drought and salinity stress (sensitive IR64, drought-tolerant Nagina 22 and salinity-tolerant Pokkali). More than 356 million 90-bp paired-end reads were generated, which provided about 85% coverage of the rice genome. Applying stringent parameters, we identified a total of 1 784 583 nonredundant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 154 275 InDels between reference (Nipponbare) and the three resequenced cultivars. We detected 401 683 and 662 509 SNPs between IR64 and Pokkali, and IR64 and N22 cultivars, respectively. The distribution of DNA polymorphisms was found to be uneven across and within the rice chromosomes. One-fourth of the SNPs and InDels were detected in genic regions, and about 3.5% of the total SNPs resulted in nonsynonymous changes. Large-effect SNPs and InDels, which affect the integrity of the encoded protein, were also identified. Further, we identified DNA polymorphisms present in the differentially expressed genes within the known quantitative trait loci. Among these, a total of 548 SNPs in 232 genes, located in the conserved functional domains, were identified. The data presented in this study provide functional markers and promising target genes for salinity and drought tolerance and present a valuable resource for high-throughput genotyping and molecular breeding for abiotic stress traits in rice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant requires nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc, which play important physiological functions in plant growth and development. In agricultural production, a large number of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were needed to achieve high grain yield. However, due to prolonged and heavy use of chemical fertilizers, excess nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in the soil bring about serious environmental problems. At the same time, excess application of chemical fertilizers such as phosphorus and potassium which mainly come from non-renewable mineral resources, leads to severe resource shortages. Besides nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, the micronutrients such as iron and zinc not only have significant impact on the properties of plant productivity and stress tolerance, but also essential trace elements in human and animals as well as selenium. Thus, understanding of the molecular mechanisms of uptake, transport and storage for these nutrients is an issue of great importance for improving the use efficiency of fertilizers, reducing environmental damage and agricultural costs, and promotion of human health. This review summarized most recent progress on the molecular mechanisms of uptake and transportation of plant nutrient, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc and selenium.
氮、磷、钾、铁和锌是植物必需的营养元素, 在植物生长发育过程中行使重要的生理功能, 在农业生产实际中, 氮、磷、钾肥的大量施用是实现作物高产的重要措施之一. 然而, 由于长期大量施用化肥, 土壤中未被利用的氮磷余肥也带来严重的环境污染问题. 同时, 磷肥和钾肥主要来源于不可再生的矿石资源, 每年的大量使用, 也逐渐加深资源短缺问题. 铁、锌对植物产量和耐逆性能有重要影响, 铁、锌、硒是人和动物易于缺乏的必需微量元素. 因此, 解析植物氮、磷、钾、铁、锌和硒的吸收、转运和储藏分子机制一直是植物营养学研究的热点, 对这些元素的高效吸收分子机制的理解对提高植物养分利用效率、减轻对环境的破坏、降低农业成本和促进人体健康等都具有重要意义. 本文概述了植物氮、磷、钾、铁、锌和硒等元素的吸收、转运及其调节机制的最新研究进展.
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