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Anal Cancer Screening in HIV-Infected Patients: Is It Time to Screen Them All?

1 Department of Medicine, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, New York 2 Anal Dysplasia Clinic, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 3 Infectious Diseases Division, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 4 Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 5 AIDS Care, Rochester, New York.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum (Impact Factor: 3.2). 12/2012; 55(12):1244-50. DOI: 10.1097/DCR.0b013e31826ab4fb
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT : Annual screening for anal cancer is recommended only for HIV patients at increased risk: men who have sex with men, individuals with a history of anogenital warts, and women with cervical dysplasia.
: The aim of this study was to examine the screening outcomes between HIV populations with and without these risk factors.
: We reviewed the records of all HIV patients referred for anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy from June 2009 to June 2010. Patients were stratified into an increased-risk group or a standard-risk group.
: Of the 329 evaluable patients, 285 (89.8% men, 10.2% women, mean age 46 ± 10 years) were classified to the increased-risk group, whereas 44 (72.7% men, 27.3% women, mean age 52 ± 8 years) were included in the standard-risk group. Male sex, white race, sexual orientation, past and current receptive anal intercourse, noncompliance with condom use, and absence of a new sexual partner were significantly different in the increased-risk group in comparison with the standard-risk group. In the increased-risk group, 187 (66.5%) patients had biopsy-proven dysplasia of which 118 (42.0%) had high-grade disease. In the standard-risk group, 15 (34.9%) patients had biopsy-proven dysplasia of which 7 (16.3%) had high-grade disease. Cytology detected biopsy-confirmed high-grade dysplasia only in 23 of 118 (19.5%) patients in the increased-risk group and in 2 of 7 (28.6%) patients in the standard-risk group. Kappa agreement in detecting high-grade disease was low for both increased-risk and standard-risk groups: 0.16 (95% CI 0.07-0.23) and 0.40 (95% CI 0.02-0.40).
: Our study is a chart-based retrospective review of data with a small female population. Histology reports came from 2 different laboratories.
: High-grade anal dysplasia was prevalent even among HIV patients who only have standard risk factors. Anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy have poor agreement. We suggest considering annual screening by using high-resolution anoscopy in addition to cytology for all HIV patients regardless of risk factors.

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    ABSTRACT: To determine rates of anal dysplasia in a cohort of HIV-infected MSM, women, and heterosexual men with abnormal anal cytology. We evaluated histologic findings in 728 HIV-infected MSM, women, and heterosexual men referred for high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) after abnormal anal cytology in a single-center cohort study. Using multivariable logistic regression, we evaluated predictors of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) histology or invasive carcinoma including age, sexual behavior, receptive anal intercourse (RAI), anogenital warts, smoking status, antiretroviral therapy, CD4 T-cell count, and HIV-1 plasma viral load. A total of 2075 HIV-positive patients were screened with anal cytology and 62% of MSM, 42% of women, and 29% of heterosexual men had abnormal findings (P <0.001). Of the 728 HIV-infected patients with abnormal anal cytology who underwent HRA, 71% were MSM, 23% women, and 6% heterosexual men. HSIL/cancer was found in 32% of MSM, 26% of women, and 23% of heterosexual men (P = 0.3). There were five cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma (0.7%), four in MSM and one in a heterosexual man. In a multivariable adjusted analysis, biopsy-proven HSIL/cancer was associated with RAI [odds ratio (OR) 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.7]. CD4 T-cell counts more than 500/μl conferred a lower risk of HSIL/cancer (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.9). Rates of anal HSIL histology are high in HIV-infected patients of all sexual risk groups with abnormal anal cytology. Consequently, all HIV-infected patients may warrant anal cancer screening.
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