The role of interventional radiology in the management of surgical complications after pancreatoduodenectomy.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee Medical School, Dundee, UK.
HPB (Impact Factor: 1.94). 12/2012; 14(12):812-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-2574.2012.00545.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study evaluates the role of interventional radiology (IR) in the management of postoperative complications after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD).
A total of 120 consecutive patients were reviewed to identify IR procedures performed for early complications after PD.
Findings showed that 24 patients (20.0%) required urgent radiological or surgical re-intervention for early complications, including 11 instances of post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH), six intra-abdominal abscesses, two bile leaks, one pancreatic fistula and one bowel ischaemia. Three of 24 complications were managed by surgery and 21 were managed by IR. Two of 11 PPHs involved intraluminal haemorrhage (ILH) and nine involved intra-abdominal haemorrhage (IAH). One ILH was managed conservatively and one required surgical intervention. In eight of nine patients with IAH, the bleeding site was identified on computed tomography angiography, and endovascular stenting or coil embolization were performed. No patient required a re-look laparotomy following IR for haemorrhage or intra-abdominal abscess. Overall, three of 120 patients required an urgent re-look laparotomy for early complications.
Rates of major morbidity after PD remain high. However, many significant complications (PPH, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess) can be managed by IR, reducing the need for reoperation. Re-look surgery is still required in a small percentage (2.5%) of patients.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Introduction: After pancreatectomy, an isolated bile leak from the hepaticojejunostomy is a severe surgical complication that is underrepresented both, in the literature and in the awareness of pancreatic surgeons. The goal of this study was to analyze the incidence and outcome of isolated bile leaks after pancreatectomy. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of patients who underwent duodenopancreatectomy or total pancreatectomy at a single-center institution was performed, which analyzed incidence and course of patients with postoperative bile leaks from the hepaticojejunostomy. Results: During a period of 42 months, 209 patients underwent pancreatic head resection or total pancreatectomy. Bile leaks occurred in 4% (8/209) and were more common in patients with distal bile duct cancer. Bile leaks led to longer hospital stay and were associated with abscess formation and other infectious complications. Unlike expected, most postoperative bile leaks occurred in the late postoperative period. Three patients required relaparotomy for biliary peritonitis or delayed visceral hemorrhage, while the other five patients underwent conservative management, including CT drainage and antibiotic therapy. One patient with a postoperative bile leak died due to delayed visceral hemorrhage. Conclusion: In contrast to recently published data, isolated postoperative bile leaks after pancreatectomy often occur in the late postoperative period and more frequently require a relaparotomy than the literature suggests. The presented study results may sensitize surgeons for this often disregarded topic and activate the discussion on treatment options.
    Journal of Investigative Surgery 05/2014; · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mortality rate due to late hemorrhage after surgery for periampullary tumors is high, especially in patients with anastomotic leakage. Patients usually require emergency intervention for late hemorrhage. In this study patients with late hemorrhage and their outcomes were analyzed. Furthermore, independent predictors for late hemorrhage, the need for emergency intervention, and type of intervention are reported. From a prospective database that includes 1,035 patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for periampullary tumors between 1992 and 2012, patients with late hemorrhage (>24 h after index operation) were identified. Patient, disease-specific, and operation characteristics, type of intervention, and outcomes were analyzed. Emergency intervention was defined as surgical or radiological intervention in hemodynamically unstable patients. Of the 47 patients (4.5 %) with late hemorrhage, pancreatic fistula was an independent predictor for developing late hemorrhage (OR 10.2). The mortality rate in patients with late hemorrhage was 13 % compared with 1.5 % in all patients without late hemorrhage. Twenty patients required emergency intervention; 80 % underwent primary radiological intervention and 20 % primary surgical intervention. Extraluminal location of the bleeding (OR 5.6) and occurrence of a sentinel bleed (OR 6.6) are indications for emergency intervention. The type of emergency intervention needed for late hemorrhage is unpredictable. Radiological intervention is preferred, but if it fails, immediate change to surgical treatment is mandatory. This can be difficult to manage but possible when both radiological and surgical interventions are in close proximity such as in a hybrid operating room and should be considered in the emergency management of patients with late hemorrhage.
    World Journal of Surgery 05/2014; · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Operative complications after pancreatoduodenectomy can be managed by nonoperative or operative interventions. The aim of this study was to analyze the shift in management of five major complications and their success rates. An algorithm was developed according to predictors for type of intervention and failure of management. Methods From 1992–2012, patients with pancreaticojejunostomy, hepaticojejunostomy or gastroenterostomy leakage, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage, or primary abscess after pancreatoduodenectomy were selected from a prospectively maintained database. Complications were treated by nonoperative or operative intervention Two cohorts were created according to period of index operation. Pre- and postoperative characteristics were analyzed. Results Of 1,037 patients, 263 (25%) experienced operative complications. The incidence of pancreatic fistula increased from 11 to 18%, accompanied by a shift from operative toward nonoperative management. This was also seen in the management of late hemorrhage. Success rates of interventions remained similar for all complications. The incidence of primary abscesses decreased. Early sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 17.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9–64.4) was associated with failure of nonoperative interventions in patients with pancreatic fistula. Hemodynamic instability (OR 17.2, 95% CI 1.8–160.1) and sepsis (OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.7–16.3) were predictive for operative intervention. Failure of nonoperative intervention (HR 3.95% CI 1.3–7.1) and operative intervention (HR 6.4 95% CI 3.2–12.8) were predictors for poor survival. Conclusion The shift towards nonoperative interventions was notable in patients suffering from pancreaticojejunostomy leakage and late hemorrhage. Anastomotic leakage, late hemorrhage, and primary abscesses can be managed nonoperatively however; hemodynamic instability and early sepsis are strong arguments to perform surgery.
    Surgery 01/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor