The role of interventional radiology in the management of surgical complications after pancreatoduodenectomy.
ABSTRACT This study evaluates the role of interventional radiology (IR) in the management of postoperative complications after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD).
A total of 120 consecutive patients were reviewed to identify IR procedures performed for early complications after PD.
Findings showed that 24 patients (20.0%) required urgent radiological or surgical re-intervention for early complications, including 11 instances of post-pancreatectomy haemorrhage (PPH), six intra-abdominal abscesses, two bile leaks, one pancreatic fistula and one bowel ischaemia. Three of 24 complications were managed by surgery and 21 were managed by IR. Two of 11 PPHs involved intraluminal haemorrhage (ILH) and nine involved intra-abdominal haemorrhage (IAH). One ILH was managed conservatively and one required surgical intervention. In eight of nine patients with IAH, the bleeding site was identified on computed tomography angiography, and endovascular stenting or coil embolization were performed. No patient required a re-look laparotomy following IR for haemorrhage or intra-abdominal abscess. Overall, three of 120 patients required an urgent re-look laparotomy for early complications.
Rates of major morbidity after PD remain high. However, many significant complications (PPH, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess) can be managed by IR, reducing the need for reoperation. Re-look surgery is still required in a small percentage (2.5%) of patients.
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ABSTRACT: Duodenal switch (DS) is one of the most effective techniques for the treatment of morbid obesity and its co-morbidities, with mortality rate <1%, but with 9.4% morbidity rates (6.5% due to leaks). In our experience, leaks of the staple-line after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the most frequent sites of fistula formation and conservative treatment usually takes a long time. We present our experience in the treatment of gastric leaks with coated self-expandable stents (CSES). 6 patients had gastric leaks at the gastroesophageal (GE) junction after SG or DS. One patient had a symptomatic gastro-bronchial fistula. Stents were placed by the interventional radiologist under fluoroscopic control and removed endoscopically. In one case, we used an uncoated Wallstent. In two patients, percutaneous microcoil embolization of the fistula was added. The patient treated with the Wallstent required a total gastrectomy 6 months after placement of the uncovered stent. In the other 5 patients, coated stents were successfully removed and the gastric leaks completely sealed. CSES are proposed as an alternative therapeutic option for the management of GE junction leaks in bariatric surgery with good results in terms of morbidity and survival.Obesity Surgery 07/2007; 17(7):866-72. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To analyze clinical courses and outcome of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) after major pancreatic surgery. Although PPH is the most life-threatening complication following pancreatic surgery, standardized rules for its management do not exist. Between 1992 and 2006, 1524 patients operated on for pancreatic diseases were included in a prospective database. A risk stratification of PPH according to the following parameters was performed: severity of PPH classified as mild (drop of hemoglobin concentration <3 g/dL) or severe (>3 g/dL), time of PPH occurrence (early, first to fifth postoperative day; late, after sixth day), coincident pancreatic fistula, intraluminal or extraluminal bleeding manifestation, and presence of "complex" vascular pathologies (erosions, pseudoaneurysms). Success rates of interventional endoscopy and angiography in preventing relaparotomy were analyzed as well as PPH-related overall outcome. Prevalence of PPH was 5.7% (n = 87) distributed almost equally among patients suffering from malignancies, borderline tumors, and focal pancreatitis (n = 47) and from chronic pancreatitis (n = 40). PPH-related overall mortality of 16% (n = 14) was closely associated with 1) the occurrence of pancreatic fistula (13 of 14); 2) vascular pathologies, ie, erosions and pseudoaneurysms (12 of 14); 3) delayed PPH occurrence (14 of 14); and 4) underlying disease with lethal PPH found only in patients with soft texture of the pancreatic remnant, while no patient with chronic pancreatitis died. Conversely, primary severity of PPH (mild vs. severe) and the kind of index operation (Whipple resection, pylorus-preserving partial pancreaticoduodenectomy, organ-preserving procedures) had no influence on outcome of PPH. Endoscopy was successful in 3 from 15 patients (20%), who had intraluminal PPH within the first or second postoperative day. "True," early extraluminal PPH had uniformly to be treated by relaparotomy. Seventeen patients had "false," early extraluminal PPH due to primarily intraluminal bleeding site from the pancreaticoenteric anastomosis with secondary disruption of the anastomosis. From 43 patients subjected to angiography, 25 underwent interventional coiling with a success rate of 80% (n = 20). Overall, relaparotomy was performed in 60 patients among whom 33 underwent surgery as first-line treatment, while 27 were relaparotomied as rescue treatment after failure of interventional endoscopy or radiology. Prognosis of PPH depends mainly on the presence of preceding pancreatic fistula. Decision making as to the indication for nonsurgical interventions should consider time of onset, presence of pancreatic fistula, vascular pathologies, and the underlying disease.Annals of Surgery 08/2007; 246(2):269-80. · 6.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is still regarded as a major complication. The incidence of POPF varies greatly in different reports, depending on the definition applied at each surgical center. Our aim was to agree upon an objective and internationally accepted definition to allow comparison of different surgical experiences. An international panel of pancreatic surgeons, working in well-known, high-volume centers, reviewed the literature on the topic and worked together to develop a simple, objective, reliable, and easy-to-apply definition of POPF, graded primarily on clinical impact. A POPF represents a failure of healing/sealing of a pancreatic-enteric anastomosis or a parenchymal leak not directly related to an anastomosis. An all-inclusive definition is a drain output of any measurable volume of fluid on or after postoperative day 3 with an amylase content greater than 3 times the serum amylase activity. Three different grades of POPF (grades A, B, C) are defined according to the clinical impact on the patient's hospital course. The present definition and clinical grading of POPF should allow realistic comparisons of surgical experiences in the future when new techniques, new operations, or new pharmacologic agents that may impact surgical treatment of pancreatic disorders are addressed.Surgery 08/2005; 138(1):8-13. · 3.37 Impact Factor