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The Trauma Outcome Process: An Integrated Model for Guiding Clinical Practice with Children with Sexually Abusive Behavior Problems

Journal of Child Sexual Abuse (Impact Factor: 0.75). 01/1999; 8:3-33. DOI: 10.1300/J070v08n04_02
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    ABSTRACT: The Trauma Resilience Scale for Children (TRS-C) was created to be a developmentally appropriate, psychometrically valid, reliable and unbiased measure of the major protective factors associated with children’s resilience following violence. Extending pilot work with adults, this scale assesses children’s perceived presence of ten protective factors following child maltreatment including: physical abuse, sexual abuse, witnessing or experiencing intimate partner violence, and/or witnessing or experiencing a serious threat or injury to life. Empirical and theoretical literature guided subscale and item formulation. Mixed methods design was used for content validation and item refinement with adult trauma experts (n=9) and children in the foster care system (n=9). Refined items were subsequently tested on a larger sample within school and clinical settings (n =208) for scale reliability, validity, factor structure, and differences across demographic characteristics. The scale demonstrated psychometric properties that support its use with children in varied circumstances. The limitations and implications of the scale are discussed, including application within clinical and research settings.