Gender Differences in the Creativity of Hong Kong School Children: Comparison by Using the New Electronic Wallach–Kogan Creativity Tests
ABSTRACT Gender differences in creativity scores of the Wallach–Kogan Creativity Tests were found for a sample of 2476 4th- to 9th-graders from 8 primary schools and 4 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Specifically, girls in the junior high grades excelled boys in verbal flexibility, figural fluency, figural flexibility, figural uniqueness, and figural unusualness. These findings contrasted with previous findings of no gender differences in a norming study of the same instrument carried out eight years before this study. The gender differences were explained in terms of environmental effect and cultural effect.
- Journal of Cardiac Failure - J CARD FAIL. 01/2011; 17(8).
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the literature to examine the themes that aims to find the association of pretend play with creativity and how pretend play is predictive of later life creativity. The developmental trends and issues of the play and creativity are also examined to find if any age and gender differences are there in developmental patterns of creativity through pretend play. The review of literature made it clear that pretend play uses cognitive processes that are involved in creative thinking. So pretend play is a predictor of creativity. Results of studies till date also indicated that creativity though develops in continuum has periods of lags and spurts throughout the childhood to adolescence. Gender differences have also been found in girls and boys play behaviors as girls are found to be engaged more in realistic role-playing than boys of their age in preschools. Later girls are found to excel boys in verbal and fluency tasks of creativity in early adolescence. Keywords: Pretend play, Creativity, Cognitive Processes, Developmental patterns, Gender differences and ReviewJournal of Arts and Humanities. 01/2014; 3(1):70-83.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated gender differences in creativity among 985 schoolchildren (499 boys, 486 girls) by analyzing both means and variability. A relatively new creativity test, the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP), was employed to gain a more refined understanding of gender differences in creativity using a gestalt approach. Whereas the results of analyses of means generally supported the Gender Similarities Hypothesis, the variability analyses tended to support the Greater Male Variability Hypothesis and the Gender Difference Hypothesis. Analyses of the TCT-DP subscales revealed that both genders have their relative strengths and weaknesses in creative thinking. Whereas girls outperformed boys in thoroughness of thinking, boys outperformed girls in boundary-breaking thinking. Variability analyses further showed that more boys clustered in the two extremes of the composite score. Significantly greater variability was found for males on five criteria of the TCT-DP. The educational implications of such a complex pattern of gender differences are discussed. With a view to searching for an explanation for gender differences, several lines of further research are proposed.Personality and Individual Differences - PERS INDIV DIFFER. 01/2011; 51(7):807-811.