Gender Differences in the Creativity of Hong Kong School Children: Comparison by Using the New Electronic Wallach–Kogan Creativity Tests
ABSTRACT Gender differences in creativity scores of the Wallach–Kogan Creativity Tests were found for a sample of 2476 4th- to 9th-graders from 8 primary schools and 4 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Specifically, girls in the junior high grades excelled boys in verbal flexibility, figural fluency, figural flexibility, figural uniqueness, and figural unusualness. These findings contrasted with previous findings of no gender differences in a norming study of the same instrument carried out eight years before this study. The gender differences were explained in terms of environmental effect and cultural effect.
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ABSTRACT: The study examined the demographic differences on parental acceptance-rejection and personality in children with intellectual disabilities. For this purpose a sample of 100 children was taken from Special Education Institutions of Gujranwala and Lahore, Pakistan. Both male and female children were included in the study. The data were analyzed by using Independent Sample t-test and One-way ANOVA in SPSS software (Version-20). Results show that the children belong to urban background were higher on parental warmth however children belong to rural background were higher on parental hostility and indifference. Gender differences revealed that female children were higher on parental warmth whereas male children were higher on the indifference. Children with uneducated mothers were higher on hostility whereas children with educated mothers were higher on parental warmth. Children belonged to the joint family system were higher on the father warmth and mother's warmth as compared to the nuclear family system. Moreover results show that middle class children were higher on the father's warmth as compared to lower class children. Elder children were higher on the parental hostility, indifference and father's warmth as compared to younger children who were higher on the mother's warmth. First born children were higher on father's warmth as compared with the second born children. The current findings provide valuable insight for parents and teachers to make friendly policies for the welfare of children with intellectual disabilities.Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences. 12/2014; 4(7S):364-372.
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the literature to examine the themes that aims to find the association of pretend play with creativity and how pretend play is predictive of later life creativity. The developmental trends and issues of the play and creativity are also examined to find if any age and gender differences are there in developmental patterns of creativity through pretend play. The review of literature made it clear that pretend play uses cognitive processes that are involved in creative thinking. So pretend play is a predictor of creativity. Results of studies till date also indicated that creativity though develops in continuum has periods of lags and spurts throughout the childhood to adolescence. Gender differences have also been found in girls and boys play behaviors as girls are found to be engaged more in realistic role-playing than boys of their age in preschools. Later girls are found to excel boys in verbal and fluency tasks of creativity in early adolescence. Keywords: Pretend play, Creativity, Cognitive Processes, Developmental patterns, Gender differences and ReviewJournal of Arts and Humanities. 01/2014; 3(1):70-83.
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ABSTRACT: The Wallach–Kogan Creativity Tests were translated into Chinese and later fully computerized for research in Hong Kong. The normative data of two cohorts (1994 and 2002) of school children were employed to test the hypothesis that growth in creative thinking occurs in a society or culture during a period of education and curriculum reforms that emphasize creative thinking. Results of multivariate analysis of variance and subsequent univariate analysis of variance supported the hypothesis. Moreover, some interesting gender differences in creativity growth were observed, underlining the fact that boys and girls should be treated differentially to obtain a desirable creativity growth for them.Creativity Research Journal 10/2013; 25(4):463-471. · 0.75 Impact Factor