Gender Differences in the Creativity of Hong Kong School Children: Comparison by Using the New Electronic Wallach–Kogan Creativity Tests

Creativity Research Journal (Impact Factor: 0.75). 04/2010; 22(2):194-199. DOI: 10.1080/10400419.2010.481522


Gender differences in creativity scores of the Wallach–Kogan Creativity Tests were found for a sample of 2476 4th- to 9th-graders from 8 primary schools and 4 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Specifically, girls in the junior high grades excelled boys in verbal flexibility, figural fluency, figural flexibility, figural uniqueness, and figural unusualness. These findings contrasted with previous findings of no gender differences in a norming study of the same instrument carried out eight years before this study. The gender differences were explained in terms of environmental effect and cultural effect.

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    • "In cases where answers could not be recognized or did not fit into a category because of their novelty, the system sent them to a webpage where the researcher had to categorize them manually. Cheung and Lau (2010) developed an online assessment tool for the Wallach–Kogan Creativity Test named the e-WKCT, which is based on the standardized paper-and-pencil test of the Chinese version of the WKCT (Cheung, Lau, Chan, & Wu, 2004). They also used an automatic scoring system and conducted a largescale study with 2,476 primary and secondary school students. "
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    ABSTRACT: Creativity is one of the most frequently cited 21st century skills, and developing creativity is one of the most often declared goals of modern education systems. However, without easy-to-use assessment instruments available for everyday application in educational practice, systematic improvement of creativity is far from a realistic option. The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of online assessment of divergent thinking and to contribute to the development of a reliable technology-based test. The paper also investigates the relationship between divergent thinking and mathematical achievement in different dimensions. The sample for the study was drawn from sixth-grade students (N = 1,984). The computerized instrument comprising nine tasks was based on item types for divergent thinking by Torrance and by Wallach and Kogan. Our online test proved to be a reliable instrument. Based on theoretical assumptions, evidence for construct validity was provided for both the fluency–flexibility–originality and verbal–figural dimensions. Divergent thinking predicts mathematical achievement at a moderate level. The advantages of technology-based assessment made our instrument suitable for everyday school practice and large-scale assessments; however, the coding process is not yet fully automated.
    Thinking Skills and Creativity 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.tsc.2015.05.004 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    • "For better understanding of development in children and adolescents, social and personal factors should be taken into consideration. Two distinct development patterns were seen for primary graders and the secondary graders (Lau & Cheung, 2010). The creativity (as measured by verbal and figural fluency, flexibility, uniqueness and unusualness) of primary school students increased from grade 4 to grade 5 and later decreased from grade 5 to 6. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the literature to examine the themes that aims to find the association of pretend play with creativity and how pretend play is predictive of later life creativity. The developmental trends and issues of the play and creativity are also examined to find if any age and gender differences are there in developmental patterns of creativity through pretend play. The review of literature made it clear that pretend play uses cognitive processes that are involved in creative thinking. So pretend play is a predictor of creativity. Results of studies till date also indicated that creativity though develops in continuum has periods of lags and spurts throughout the childhood to adolescence. Gender differences have also been found in girls and boys play behaviors as girls are found to be engaged more in realistic role-playing than boys of their age in preschools. Later girls are found to excel boys in verbal and fluency tasks of creativity in early adolescence. Keywords: Pretend play, Creativity, Cognitive Processes, Developmental patterns, Gender differences and Review
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    ABSTRACT: A sample of 2,476 Grade 4 to 9 Chinese school children was tested with the new electronic Wallach–Kogan Creativity Tests. Among primary students, creativity scores rose from Grade 4 to 5 and then dropped from 5 to 6; and among secondary students, creativity scores rose from Grade 7 to 9. A drop from Grade 6 to 7 was also observed. Apart from these overall trends, different patterns of gender differences were found in primary and secondary grades. In Grade 4 to 6, boys scored higher than girls marginally on most creativity indexes. In Grade 7 and 8, girls excelled boys significantly on figural fluency, flexibility, uniqueness, and unusualness. In Grade 8, girls also scored higher on verbal flexibility. The gender differences were narrowed down again marginally in Grade 9.
    Creativity Research Journal 07/2010; 22(3-3):329-336. DOI:10.1080/10400419.2010.503543 · 0.75 Impact Factor
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