Acceptability and Ethics of Product Placement in Sport Video Games

Journal of Promotion Management 10/2010; 16:411-427. DOI: 10.1080/10496491003591386

ABSTRACT Product placement in sport video games is an emerging area of marketing and advertising communication, but it also raises controversial ethical issues. In order to investigate these issues from a consumer perspective, this study examines the perceptions of the acceptability of product placement in sport video games (SVGs). Data were gathered from 253 sport video gamers using an online survey. The results indicate that while sport video gamers generally have favorable attitudes toward product placement in sport video games, ethically-charged products such as alcohol, cigarettes, and guns are perceived as less acceptable than other products. Individual differences among sport video gamers are found based on their related attitudes, hours of playing sport video games, and gender. Also, sport video gamers who have favorable attitudes toward product placement, in general, are more likely to intend to purchase a product or brand which may be placed in sport video games.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines the ethical propriety of current trends in product placement in television and film entertainment. Historical background for the product placement concept and practice is provided. Changes in the marketing climate that have provided a push for product placement are outlined. A characterization of the product placement industry as it stands today, and the ethical issues raised by the practice frame the analysis. Three distinct “genres” of contemporary product placement are analyzed: (1) Product Placement, (2) Product Integration, and (3) Video Insertion. First, the rise of Product Placement, strategic changes in use, and increased dependence on revenues in production will be discussed. The second section examines a newly mounted form of Product Integration, whereby product placement plays a key role in content development and support of production in television and film. Third, the origins of Video Insertion will be traced to the Princeton Video Image invention of its proprietary L-VIS product. The ethical efficacy ofplacing “virtual advertisements” in space and times that do not naturally exist will be examined. The article closes with summary assessments and consideration of recommendations for action. Ethical issues focused on in the assessment include deception, artists' rights, and excess commercialism. Recommendations consider the climate for full and advance disclosure of product placements in media entertainment, the prospects for a voluntary rating system, and the threat of reclassifying product placement infused media entertainment as commercial speech.
    Journal of Promotion Management 05/2004; 10(1-2):101-132.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Relying on the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), a longitudinal study investigated the effects of an intervention-introduction of a prepaid bus ticket-on increased bus use among college students. In this context, the logic of the proposition that past behavior is the best predictor of later behavior was also examined. The intervention was found to influence attitudes toward bus use, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control and, consistent with the theory, to affect intentions and behavior in the desired direction. Furthermore, the theory afforded accurate prediction of intention and behavior both before and after the intervention. In contrast, a measure of past behavior improved prediction of travel mode prior to the intervention, but lost its predictive utility for behavior following the intervention. In a test of the proposition that the effect of past on later behavior is due to habit formation, an independent measure of habit failed to mediate the effects of past on later behavior. It is concluded that choice of travel mode is largely a reasoned decision; that this decision can be affected by interventions that produce change in attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control; and that past travel choice contributes to the prediction of later behavior only if circumstances remain relatively stable.
    Basic and Applied Social Psychology 09/2003; 25(3):175-187. · 1.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This research explores a growing genre of marketing communication, labeled hybrid messages, which creatively combine key advantages (and avoid key disadvantages) inherent in advertising and publicity messages. Several types of hybrid messages are discussed, including those with long established histories (product placements, program-length commercials, program tie-ins), and those with a relatively recent origin (masked-art, masked-news, and masked-spokesperson messages). To obtain integrative insights on hybrid messages, this study: (a) reviews their historical/current regulatory status, (b) discusses their pros and cons, theoretical rationales and practical implications, and (c) delineates an extensive agenda for future research. Several important public policy questions raised by hybrid messages are addressed.
    Journal of Advertising 12/1994; 23(4):29-46. · 0.99 Impact Factor


Available from