Multinational companies in India
ABSTRACT This article presents the changes in the government policy concerning multinational companies (MNCs) since liberalisation in 1991. It also presents an overview of the structure of MNCs in India and the attitude and apprehensions of domestic businesses concerning MNCs. Issues relating to employment, wages, working conditions, unionisation, collective bargaining, industrial relations, social security, human resource development and the perceptions of the social partners concerning ILO declaration on social policy and code of conduct in respect of MNCs in India have been discussed. The paper concludes with the assertion that India has opened up its economy with far less discrimination than most other countries, including the Far East and South East Asian economies at their commensurate state of development. It was observed that MNCs have grown in India and Indian businesses are also growing into MNCs. The practices of MNCs cannot be considered unique as some of the domestic private businesses also were seen to be pursuing the same.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of foreign direct investment location – specifically whether firms enter a particular market or not. Drawing from the ecology and institutional theories, the paper identifies firms' own past (behavioral inertia) and rivals' past choices (behavioral mimicry) as key determinants of location selection. The paper identifies the differences between developing country multinationals (MNCs) and developed country MNCs and their (differences)' implications for the relative influence of mimetic versus inertial forces. Design/methodology/approach – A unique and comprehensive database about the location choices of 204 Chinese firms between 1992 and 2005 was constructed and conditional logistic regressions were deployed to assess the direct effects of behavioral inertia/mimicry, and the moderating effect of host country environment, on the location choices of the sampled firms. Findings – The paper finds that behavioral inertia has a stronger impact on the location decisions of Chinese MNCs than behavioral mimicry. It also finds that the host country's institutions, openness, and policy stability moderate the relationship between behavioral mimicry and inertia, on one hand, and location choice, on the other hand, possibly because of these factors' influence on the level of perceived uncertainty. Originality/value – This is the first paper modeling the simultaneous effects of behavioral inertia and mimicry on location choice and the moderating effect of host country environment on these relationships. The strong empirical support for all the predictions lends credence to the conceptual foundations of the hypothesized relationships. The focus on developing country MNCs, which possess several distinctive characteristics, and the unique dataset, should also enhance the paper's appeal.International Marketing Review 05/2010; 27(3):295-315. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Summary Recognizing the importance and need of Education in general & technical education in particular India has taken planned and systematic steps to establish Centres of Excellence in technical fields. They were Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) in 1950s followed by Regional Engineering Colleges, re-named as National Institute of Technology, (NITs in 2003) in each state as second level Institutions in 1960s. Afterwards, with the advent of information technology Indian Institute of information Technology (IIITs) were established in early 21st century. After a gap of about 40 years India decided to establish additional such Centres of Excellence. Very recently new IITs, NITs and IIITs are being established at various places of India. In an effort to find out the impact of various parameters of Human Resource Management and innovations on technical institutions, a comprehensive study has been conducted seeking the example of two technical institutions (T1 & T2). In the present study the important components such as administrative structure, selections of HR, satisfaction level, participation of staff in management, perks, automation of libraries and laboratories, etc affecting the Human Resource Management have been included and opinions were sought from the support staff of the two institutions (T1 & T2). In earlier two research papers the views of officers and faculty members of same institutions were analyzed to have perspective effect of the analysis on Human Resource Management. The present study will give holistic approach of completeness of Human Resources involved in shaping and reshaping alongwith further shaping the organizations. The deliverables of the observations by support staff reflect that T1 is comparatively better prone in using information communication technology (ICT) in different managerial aspects as compared to T2.01/2009;
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ABSTRACT: This paper provides a critical review of the emerging literature on African management, which is dominated by cultural relativism. In particular, the weaknesses and limitations of the assumptions and arguments of this view are extensively examined. One of the key issues relate to the homogeneous conceptualization of "national" and African culture, which is inappropriate given the cultural diversities and complexities that characterize the continent. Second, the generalizations that often characterize the literature do not acknowledge the varieties of business types and organizations that exist, an apparent lack of attention to context and firm-specificity. Furthermore, cultural relativism often overestimates the stability and long-term resilience of cultural values. Due to these fundamental weaknesses of the culturalist conceptual approach, this paper argues that there is a need for richer and fuller theoretical approaches that emphasize the market and institutional embeddedness of organizations.African Journal of Business Management. 04/2011; 5:2028-2039.