Multinational Companies in India

The International Journal of Human Resource Management (Impact Factor: 0.93). 01/1998; 9(4):567-589. DOI: 10.1080/095851998340900


This article presents the changes in the government policy concerning multinational companies (MNCs) since liberalisation in 1991. It also presents an overview of the structure of MNCs in India and the attitude and apprehensions of domestic businesses concerning MNCs. Issues relating to employment, wages, working conditions, unionisation, collective bargaining, industrial relations, social security, human resource development and the perceptions of the social partners concerning ILO declaration on social policy and code of conduct in respect of MNCs in India have been discussed. The paper concludes with the assertion that India has opened up its economy with far less discrimination than most other countries, including the Far East and South East Asian economies at their commensurate state of development. It was observed that MNCs have grown in India and Indian businesses are also growing into MNCs. The practices of MNCs cannot be considered unique as some of the domestic private businesses also were seen to be pursuing the same.

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    • "But Indian firms have experienced sudden and increased level of competition from international firms after the liberalization of Indian economy (Budhwar and Sparrow, 1997). This situation created opportunity for Indian firms to upgrade technology and mobilize HR to get competitive advantage ( Jain, 1991; Venkata Ratnam, 1998). It was revealed that liberalization of Indian economy has created pressure on the Indian HRM function to become more proactive both in public and private sectors and HRM practices are structured and rationalized (Budhwar and Boyne, 2004). "

    03/2015; 4(1):110-128. DOI:10.1108/SAJGBR-10-2012-0119
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    • "Wilkinson (1999) also supported this view that HRM is the phenomenon related to large organizations. Nevertheless, the literature shows evidences that HRM is well established in Indian organizations (Budhwar et al., 2006; Budhwar and Boyne, 2004; Venkata Ratnam, 1998) and also, the organizations appears to be creating a strong HR climate based on structured HR practices (Stumpf et al., 2010). Fig. 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is first, to review and understand major modern HRM challenges in India, secondly, to argue that the underlying ailment is the way organizations and employees respond to these challenges, and lastly to discuss how positive psychology can play a healing role. The paper describes how major issues faced by HRM can be addressed by adopting the tenets of positive psychology to align HR with the changes that are happening in the workplace and the economy. Further, it is explained that resilience, subjective well-being, hope and optimism would be able to demonstrate as a utilitarian capacity to accommodate emerging trends. The paper suggests a fundamental rethink to HRM issues and offers application of positive psychology as a feasible solution. This paper could be useful to design HR policies and interventions in a more thoughtful manner. It is revealed that positive psychology has the potential to make a difference and thus, more empirical research is suggested.
    Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 05/2014; 133:141–150. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.178
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    • "due to less governmental interference) for MNCs wishing to enter the market. Not surprisingly, several prior studies have empirically demonstrated the positive relationship between market openness and greater FDI levels (Venkata Ratnam, 1998; Lu, 2000; Pacheco-López, 2005). Given the lower uncertainty in more open host markets as well as greater potential benefits due to technological sophistication, we predict that firms will exhibit lower mimetic as well as inertial tendencies while locating in more open markets: "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of foreign direct investment location – specifically whether firms enter a particular market or not. Drawing from the ecology and institutional theories, the paper identifies firms' own past (behavioral inertia) and rivals' past choices (behavioral mimicry) as key determinants of location selection. The paper identifies the differences between developing country multinationals (MNCs) and developed country MNCs and their (differences)' implications for the relative influence of mimetic versus inertial forces. Design/methodology/approach – A unique and comprehensive database about the location choices of 204 Chinese firms between 1992 and 2005 was constructed and conditional logistic regressions were deployed to assess the direct effects of behavioral inertia/mimicry, and the moderating effect of host country environment, on the location choices of the sampled firms. Findings – The paper finds that behavioral inertia has a stronger impact on the location decisions of Chinese MNCs than behavioral mimicry. It also finds that the host country's institutions, openness, and policy stability moderate the relationship between behavioral mimicry and inertia, on one hand, and location choice, on the other hand, possibly because of these factors' influence on the level of perceived uncertainty. Originality/value – This is the first paper modeling the simultaneous effects of behavioral inertia and mimicry on location choice and the moderating effect of host country environment on these relationships. The strong empirical support for all the predictions lends credence to the conceptual foundations of the hypothesized relationships. The focus on developing country MNCs, which possess several distinctive characteristics, and the unique dataset, should also enhance the paper's appeal.
    International Marketing Review 05/2010; 27(3):295-315. DOI:10.1108/02651331011048005 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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