Precipitated withdrawal during maintenance opioid blockade with extended release naltrexone
ABSTRACT Background There has been increasing interest in the use of extended release injectable naltrexone for the treatment of opioid dependence. Case description We report a case of precipitated withdrawal in a 17-year-old adolescent female receiving extended release naltrexone (Vivitrol) for opioid dependence, following her third serial monthly dose of the medication, several days after using oxycodone with mild intoxication. Conclusions This case suggests that, in some circumstances, the opioid blockade may be overcome when naltrexone levels drop towards the end of the dosing interval, producing vulnerability to subsequent naltrexone-induced withdrawal. This may provide cautionary guidance for clinical management and dosing strategies.
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ABSTRACT: The major problem with the oral formulation of naltrexone for heroin dependence is poor compliance (adherence). Long-acting sustained release formulations of naltrexone (implantable and injectable) might help to improve compliance and, thus, increase the efficacy of abstinence-oriented treatment of heroin dependence with naltrexone. There have been several implantable and injectable formulations of naltrexone developed within the last decade. It was demonstrated that some of them are effective and relatively well tolerated medications for relapse prevention in heroin addicts. However, advantages and disadvantages of these new medications have never been systematically analyzed. Long-acting sustained release formulations of naltrexone are well tolerated and more effective for relapse prevention in heroin addicts than the oral ones.Current opinion in psychiatry 03/2010; 23(3):210-4. DOI:10.1097/YCO.0b013e3283386578 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The introduction of newly formulated extended release (ER) morphine with sequestered naltrexone (Embeda) has provided another treatment option for moderate to severe persistent pain. Embeda was designed to be an abuse-deterrent opioid formulation. Naltrexone is a centrally acting opioid receptor antagonist that blocks the action of opioid. When taken as directed, insignificant amount of sequestered naltrexone would reach systemic circulation, but upon tampering, the released naltrexone may blunt the euphoria of opioids, and possibly precipitate opioid withdrawal in opioid-dependent patient. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case report ofa 50-year-old opioid-dependent male who developed acute opioid withdrawal after taking crushed Embeda. CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old male with severe, chronic low back pain due to degenerative disc disease was referred to our clinic for pain management. He was taking ER oxycodone 80 mg tid and Roxicodone 30 mg qid prn, with inadequate pain relief A trial of ER oxymorphone was decided, at 40 mg 1-2 doses bid. The patient returned to the clinic 1 week early, out of his ER oxymorphone. At this time, the decision to switch him to Embeda was made, at 80 mg/3.2 mg, 1-2 doses bid. The patient and his family members were counseled about risk involved with tampering with Embeda. A few hours later, our clinic was informed that the patient was brought to emergency room by ambulance, in severe opioid withdrawal. He was treated with IV fluid, antiemetics, clonidine, and IV hydromorphone. His condition improved and he was discharged home the next morning. Later on, the patient admitted that he took two prescribed Embeda within half an hour, the 1st one whole and the 2nd one crushed. He further admitted that he did so against our medical advice. CONCLUSION. Taking tampered Embeda may precipitate opioid withdrawal in opioid-tolerant patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of induced opioid withdrawal following consumption of crushed Embeda.Journal of opioid management 07/2010; 6(4):300-3. DOI:10.5055/jom.2010.0028
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ABSTRACT: Addiction to opiates is one of the most severe forms of substance dependence, and despite a variety of pharmacological approaches to treat it, relapse is observed in a high percentage of subjects. New pharmacological compounds are necessary to improve the outcome of treatments and reduce adverse side effects. Moreover, drugs that act on the opioid system can also be of benefit in the treatment of alcohol or cocaine addiction. AREA COVERED BY THIS REVIEW: Recent preclinical studies of pharmacological agents for the treatment of opiate addiction (2008 to the present date). The reader will be informed of the latest drugs shown in animal models to modify dependence on opiates and the reinforcing effects of these drugs. In addition, reports of the latest studies to test these compounds in models of other drug addictions are reviewed. The classic clinical pharmacotherapy for opiate dependence, involving mu-opioid receptor agonists or antagonists, has not yielded a high success rate in humans. In pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence, new options are emerging and different pharmacological strategies are now being tested.Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 08/2010; 19(8):977-94. DOI:10.1517/13543784.2010.500612 · 5.43 Impact Factor