Cancer Chemopreventive Potential of Apples, Apple Juice, and Apple Components

Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
Planta Medica (Impact Factor: 2.15). 11/2008; 74(13):1608-24. DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1088300
Source: PubMed


Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

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    • "In particular, some of these apple compounds are already being used in experimental cancer treatment (Palermo et al., 2012) such as pectin, a polysaccharide fiber that can block proliferation and induces cellular apoptosis (Gerhauser, 2008; Niture and Refai, 2013). The major role of this (compound) in cancer is protection against oxidation, which can lead to DNA damage (Boyer and Liu, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Apples and their derivatives are rich in phytochemicals, including flavonoids (catechins, flavonols, quercetin) and phenolic acids (quercetin glycosides, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins), vitamins, and fibers, that confer an important antioxidant property. Chemoprevention is defined by the use of natural or synthetic agents to interfere with the progression, reverse, or inhibit carcinogenesis, thereby reducing the risk of developing clinically invasive disease. The aim of this article is to present data generated from the use of apples as a chemopreventive agent in carcinogenesis using in-vivo and in-vitro test systems. Apple and its bioactive compounds can exert chemopreventive properties as a result of antioxidant activity and cell cycle control. However, future focus of research on apple such as identifying the specific phytochemical responsible for the anticarcinogenic effect, timing of consumption, and adequate amount of apples to achieve the best preventive effect using human large randomized-controlled trials is needed. Furthermore, animal studies are also relevant for better understanding the role of this fruit in human health as well as modulation of degenerative diseases such as cancer. Therefore, this area warrants further investigation as a new way of thinking, which would apply not only to apples but also to other fruit used as promising therapeutic agents against human diseases.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 12/2013; 23(5). DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000005 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Note that these calculations were again performed for clarity and we are not suggesting that the fruit consumption for Burlington consist exclusively of apples, or that the entire yield of urban food forestry systems would consist of apples; we envision UFF in practice producing a wide diversity of locally-selected fruits and nuts, as represented by the CFSM. Importantly, however, epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes (Boyer and Liu 2004; Gerhauser 2008), making them a particularly strong choice for improving community food security. Climate–Food–Species Matrix We created a reference table of perennial foodproducing plants, the CFSM, starting with the 250 commonly planted urban tree species included in the Climate–Species Matrix developed by Roloff et al. (2009), which assessed tree cold hardiness and drought tolerance. "
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the potential role of perennial woody food-producing species (“food trees”) in cities in the context of urban sustainable development and propose a multifunctional approach that combines elements of urban agriculture, urban forestry, and agroforestry into what we call “urban food forestry” (UFF). We used four approaches at different scales to gauge the potential of UFF to enhance urban sustainability and contribute to food security in the context of urbanization and climate change. First, we identified 37 current initiatives based around urban food trees, and analyzed their activities in three categories: planting, mapping, and harvesting, finding that the majority (73 %) only performed one activity, and only 8 % performed all three. Second, we analyzed 30 urban forestry master plans, finding that only 13 % included human food security among their objectives, while 77 % included habitat for wildlife. Third, we used Burlington, Vermont as a case study to quantify the potential fruit yield of publicly accessible open space if planted with Malus domestica (the common apple) under nine different planting and yield scenarios. We found that 108 % of the daily recommended minimum intake of fruit for the entire city’s population could be met under the most ambitious planting scenario, with substantial potential to contribute to food security even under more modest scenarios. Finally, we developed a Climate–Food–Species Matrix of potential food trees appropriate for temperate urban environments as a decision-making tool. We identified a total of 70 species, 30 of which we deemed “highly suitable” for urban food forestry based on their cold hardiness, drought tolerance, and edibility. We conclude that substantial untapped potential exists for urban food forestry to contribute to urban sustainability via increased food security and landscape multifunctionality.
    Landscape Ecology 11/2013; 28(9). DOI:10.1007/s10980-013-9903-z · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    • "intake could be beneficial for cancer prevention (Gerhauser, 2008; Murakami et al., 2008), coronary artery disease prevention (Siu, 2010) and moderation of aging process. But what will happen if cancer patient takes artificial herbal sourced antioxidants such as quercetin which is abundantly present in many herbs, fruits and grains. "
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    ABSTRACT: Quercetin is one of the most abundant dietary flavonoids widely present in many fruits and vegetables. Previous in vitro studies has shown that quercetin acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and it has potent anticarcinogenic properties as an apoptosis inducer. In this study we examined apoptotic effects of quercetin on the K562 erythroleukemia cell line. K562 cells were induced to undergo apoptosis by hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability and apoptosis level were assessed by annexin V and PI staining methods using flow cytometry. Viability of K562 cells was increased by low dose of quercetin (5-100 μM) for 3 hours. High doses of quercetin proved toxic (100-500 μM, 24 hours) and resulted in decrease of K562 cell viability as expected (P<0.01). As to results, 100 μM quercetin was defined as a protective dose. Also, K562 cell apoptosis due to hydrogen peroxide was decreased in a dose dependent manner. As indicated in previous studies, reduction of superoxides by free radical scavengers like quercetin could be beneficial for prevention of cancer but consumption of such flavonoids during cancer treatment may weaken effects of chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy. Especially cancer patients should be carefully considered for traditional phytotherapy during cancer treatment, which can lead to controversial results.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 08/2013; 14(8):4611-4614. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.8.4611 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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