Article

Current world status of Balantidium coli

California Department of Health, Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, Richmond, California 9480, USA.
Clinical microbiology reviews (Impact Factor: 16). 11/2008; 21(4):626-38. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00021-08
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. Pigs are its reservoir hosts, and humans become infected through direct or indirect contact with pigs. In rural areas and in some developing countries where pig and human fecal matter contaminates the water supply, there is a greater likelihood that balantidiosis may develop in humans. The infection may be subclinical in humans, as it mostly is in pigs, or may develop as a fulminant infection with bloody and mucus-containing diarrhea; this can lead to perforation of the colon. The disease responds to treatment with tetracycline or metronidazole. Balantidiosis is a disease that need never exist given access to clean water and a public health infrastructure that monitors the water supply and tracks infections. Its spread can be limited by sanitary measures and personal hygiene, but it is a disease that will be around as long as there are pigs. Immunocompromised individuals have developed balantidiosis without any direct contact with pigs, perhaps with rats or contaminated produce as a possible source of infection. For the clinician, balanatidiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis for persistent diarrhea in travelers to or from Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific islands, rural South America, or communities where close contact with domestic swine occurs. Warming of the earth's surface may provide a more favorable environment, even in the now-temperate areas of the world, for survival of trophic and cystic stages of Balantidium, and its prevalence may increase. Effective sanitation and uncontaminated water are the most useful weapons against infection. Fortunately, balantidiosis responds to antimicrobial therapy, and there have been no reports of resistance to the drugs of choice.

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    • "Amoebiasis (Amoebic dysentery) is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasite called Entamoeba histolytica .It causes colitis characterized by painful passage of bloody mucoid stool (Schuster and Ramirez- Avila, 2008; Lourenssen et al., 2010). Entamoeba histolytica is protozoan parasite, found world wide and 12% of the world's population are estimated to be infected. "
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    • "Human-to-human transmission may also occur. B. coli infects the caecum and colon in man, and the infections may either remain asymptomatic or, in invasive cases, trophozoites may invade the intestinal epithelium, producing hemorrhagic lesions, ulcerations, abscess formation, or a local generalized peritonitis with perforations [6]. The major factors contributing to the spread of the disease to humans are the presence of infected animals, subtropical and/or tropical climatic conditions, suboptimal hygienic standards, malnutrition , concomitant parasitic infections and debilitating diseases [8] [9]. "
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    Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine 01/2012; 2(2):77-8p0.
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    • "Non-human primates are also susceptible to infection (see Howells et al., 2011) but their role in zoonotic transmission is likely to be minimal. Balantidium is most common in tropical and subtropical regions (Zaman, 1998; Farthing et al., 2003; Owen, 2005) and the risk of infection in humans is in communities that have a close association with pigs (Schuster and Ramirez-Avila, 2008). However, infection in humans is rarely reported (Farthing et al., 2003; Schuster and Visvesvara, 2004; Conlan et al., in press). "
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    Veterinary Parasitology 07/2011; 182(1):70-8. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.016 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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