Current world status of Balantidium coli

California Department of Health, Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, Richmond, California 9480, USA.
Clinical microbiology reviews (Impact Factor: 16). 11/2008; 21(4):626-38. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00021-08
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. Pigs are its reservoir hosts, and humans become infected through direct or indirect contact with pigs. In rural areas and in some developing countries where pig and human fecal matter contaminates the water supply, there is a greater likelihood that balantidiosis may develop in humans. The infection may be subclinical in humans, as it mostly is in pigs, or may develop as a fulminant infection with bloody and mucus-containing diarrhea; this can lead to perforation of the colon. The disease responds to treatment with tetracycline or metronidazole. Balantidiosis is a disease that need never exist given access to clean water and a public health infrastructure that monitors the water supply and tracks infections. Its spread can be limited by sanitary measures and personal hygiene, but it is a disease that will be around as long as there are pigs. Immunocompromised individuals have developed balantidiosis without any direct contact with pigs, perhaps with rats or contaminated produce as a possible source of infection. For the clinician, balanatidiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis for persistent diarrhea in travelers to or from Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific islands, rural South America, or communities where close contact with domestic swine occurs. Warming of the earth's surface may provide a more favorable environment, even in the now-temperate areas of the world, for survival of trophic and cystic stages of Balantidium, and its prevalence may increase. Effective sanitation and uncontaminated water are the most useful weapons against infection. Fortunately, balantidiosis responds to antimicrobial therapy, and there have been no reports of resistance to the drugs of choice.

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    • "Amoebiasis (Amoebic dysentery) is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasite called Entamoeba histolytica .It causes colitis characterized by painful passage of bloody mucoid stool (Schuster and Ramirez- Avila, 2008; Lourenssen et al., 2010). Entamoeba histolytica is protozoan parasite, found world wide and 12% of the world's population are estimated to be infected. "
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    ABSTRACT: To present the efficacy and safety of Metronidazole and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of diarrhea caused by Entamoeba histolytica, cyst and trophozyed in patients presented to the emergency department and emergency pediatric clinic in Queen Alia Hospital (Jordan). A strategy for diagnosis Entamoeba histolytica was evaluated by studying 181 patients aged 2-50 years. Between the 1st of May 2009 and the beginning of May 2010, 181 patients with intestinal amoebiasis were recruited for this study from the Emergency Department and emergency Pediatric Clinic at Queen Alia Military Hospital. After doing stool analysis for every patient, Metronidazole 500 mg three times was given to the adult group and 40 mg kg-1day in three divided doses for the pediatric group for 10 days and two tablets twice daily for adults and 5 mL twice daily for children for ten days of co-trimaxazole, with follow up stool analysis after one week of treatment. Out of 181 patients (81) patients were adult’s age (14-50 years) and (100 patients) were children aged (2-14 years). About 5.5% of the patient showed the amoebic trophozoite in their stool while the remaining showed only the amoebic cysts. Over all metronidazole and co-trimoxazole produced a clinical response rate of 95% in both adults and children group after 10 days course of Metronidazole. Our findings demonstrated the efficacy of 10 day of course Metronidazole and co-trimoxazole in eradication intestinal amoebiasis for which the causative organism is identified by simple stool examination.
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    • "Human-to-human transmission may also occur. B. coli infects the caecum and colon in man, and the infections may either remain asymptomatic or, in invasive cases, trophozoites may invade the intestinal epithelium, producing hemorrhagic lesions, ulcerations, abscess formation, or a local generalized peritonitis with perforations [6]. The major factors contributing to the spread of the disease to humans are the presence of infected animals, subtropical and/or tropical climatic conditions, suboptimal hygienic standards, malnutrition , concomitant parasitic infections and debilitating diseases [8] [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Balantidium coli is a zoonotic protozoan parasite, and pork is considered the major source of Balantidium infection in humans. Transmission is direct and commonly occurs through the ingestion of water and food, especially vegetables, contaminated with infectious cysts. Ingestion of meat contaminated, with faecal material during the evisceration process, can represent a potential risk of B. coli transmission. In order to determine the rate of B. coli infection in pigs regularly slaughtered at abattoirs in the province of Messina (Sicily, Italy), faecal samples of 242 pigs (122 commercial hybrid and 120 Nero Siciliano pigs) were collected and evaluated by standard methods for the presence of trophozoites and/or cysts. A total of 105 of the commercial hybrid (86.06%), but only 44 of the Nero Siciliano (36.66%) pigs, were identi-fied as positive for B. coli infection. The results obtained, may be linked to the type of farming employed.
    Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine 01/2012; 2(2):77-8p0.
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    • "Non-human primates are also susceptible to infection (see Howells et al., 2011) but their role in zoonotic transmission is likely to be minimal. Balantidium is most common in tropical and subtropical regions (Zaman, 1998; Farthing et al., 2003; Owen, 2005) and the risk of infection in humans is in communities that have a close association with pigs (Schuster and Ramirez-Avila, 2008). However, infection in humans is rarely reported (Farthing et al., 2003; Schuster and Visvesvara, 2004; Conlan et al., in press). "
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    ABSTRACT: A growing number of enteric protozoan species are considered to have zoonotic potential. Their clinical impact varies and in many cases is poorly defined. Similarly, the epidemiology of infections, particularly the role of non-human hosts, requires further study. In this review, new information on the life cycles and transmission of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba, Blastocystis and Balantidium are examined in the context of zoonotic potential, as well as polyparasitism and clinical significance.
    Veterinary Parasitology 07/2011; 182(1):70-8. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.016 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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