Diffuse cerebral hypomyelination with cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum.
ABSTRACT Three unrelated Japanese patients who presented with ataxia and mild mental retardation were examined in this study. Early development was normal in two patients and slightly delayed in one. All could walk independently, but were unstable due to cerebellar ataxia. They had mild intellectual retardation and displayed slow, progressive, and mild clinical courses. Two patients lost the ability to walk at 12 and 25 years of age. Brain MRI of the three patients revealed diffuse cerebral hypomyelination, moderate cerebellar cortical atrophy, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, which were seen in other diffuse hypomyelination syndrome. No known abnormalities were found in biochemical and genetic studies. Auditory brainstem responses and nerve conduction studies were normal. A definite diagnosis could not be made because of the lack of hypodontia, hypogonadism, cataracts, or basal ganglia atrophy. Based on common MRI findings and the relatively mild clinical courses, we believe that these patients may have another subset form of diffuse hypomyelination syndrome involving the cerebral white matter and cerebellum.
- SourceAvailable from: Dorit LevEuropean Journal of Paediatric Neurology 05/2015; 19:S79. DOI:10.1016/S1090-3798(15)30264-6 · 1.93 Impact Factor
- Brain 08/2014; 138(2). DOI:10.1093/brain/awu243 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We performed whole-exome sequencing analysis of patients with genetically unsolved hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, identifying 8 patients with TUBB4A mutations and allowing the phenotypic spectrum of TUBB4A mutations to be investigated.METHODS: Fourteen patients with hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, 7 clinically diagnosed with hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC), and 7 with unclassified hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy, were analyzed by whole-exome sequencing. The effect of the mutations on microtubule assembly was examined by mapping altered amino acids onto 3-dimensional models of the αβ-tubulin heterodimer.RESULTS: Six heterozygous missense mutations in TUBB4A, 5 of which are novel, were identified in 8 patients (6/7 patients with H-ABC [the remaining patient is an atypical case] and 2/7 patients with unclassified hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy). In 4 cases with parental samples available, the mutations occurred de novo. Analysis of 3-dimensional models revealed that the p.Glu410Lys mutation, identified in patients with unclassified hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy, directly impairs motor protein and/or microtubule-associated protein interactions with microtubules, whereas the other mutations affect longitudinal interactions for maintaining αβ-tubulin structure, suggesting different mechanisms in tubulin function impairment. In patients with the p.Glu410Lys mutation, basal ganglia atrophy was unobserved or minimal although extrapyramidal features were detected, suggesting its functional impairment.CONCLUSIONS: TUBB4A mutations cause typical H-ABC. Furthermore, TUBB4A mutations associate cases of unclassified hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies with morphologically retained but functionally impaired basal ganglia, suggesting that TUBB4A-related hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies encompass a broader clinical spectrum than previously expected. Extrapyramidal findings may be a key for consideration of TUBB4A mutations in hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies.Neurology 05/2014; 82(24). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000535 · 8.30 Impact Factor