1α,24(S)(OH)2D2 normalizes bone morphology and serum parathyroid hormone without hypercalcemia in 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-hydroxylase (CYP27B1)-deficient mice, an animal model of vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
ABSTRACT Vitamin D compounds are effective in managing elevated PTH levels in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) of renal failure. However, undesired increases in serum calcium and phosphorus associated with compounds such as calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3] has prompted a search for compounds with improved safety profiles. 1alpha,24(S)(OH)2D2 (1,24(OH)2D2) is a vitamin D2 metabolite with low calcium-mo bilizing activity in vivo. We studied the efficacy of 1,24(OH)2D2 in mice lacking the CYP27B1 enzyme [25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-OHase)], a novel vitamin D deficiency model with SHPT.
1alpha-OHase-deficient (-/-) mice and normal (+/-) heterozygous littermates re ceived 1,24(OH)2D2 (100, 300, 1000, and 3000 pg/g/day) or 1,25(OH)2D3 (30, 300, and 500 pg/g/day) for 5 weeks via daily sc injection. Control groups received vehicle.
Vehicle-treated 1alpha-OHase-deficient mice were hypocalcemic and had greatly elevated serum PTH. 1,24(OH)2D2 at doses above 300 pg/g/day normalized serum calcium, serum PTH, bone growth plate morphology, and other bone parameters. No hy percalcemia was observed at any dose of 1,24(OH)2D2 in normal or 1alpha-OHase-deficient animals. In contrast, 1,25(OH)2D3 at only 30 pg/g/day normalized calcemia, serum PTH, and bone parameters, but at higher doses completely suppressed PTH and caused hypercalcemia in both 1alpha-OHase-deficient and normal mice. Treatment with 500 pg/g/day of 1,25(OH)2D3 also induced osteomalacia in normal animals.
1,25(OH)2D3 was maximally active at 10-fold lower doses than 1,24(OH)2D2, but induced hypercalcemia and osteomalacia at high doses. 1,24(OH)2D2 normalized serum calcium, serum PTH, and bone histomorphometry without hypercalcemia in 1alpha-OHase-deficient mice with SHPT.
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ABSTRACT: Milk-alkali syndrome is a rare cause of hypercalcemia characterized by the triad of hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, and metabolic alkalosis that results from the overconsumption of calcium containing products. In the setting of pregnancy where there is a physiologic increase in calcium absorption, milk-alkali syndrome can be potentially life threatening. We report a case of a 26-year-old woman in her second trimester of pregnancy who presented with 2 weeks of flank pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, headache, and lightheadedness. The history revealed consumption of a large quantity of milk, calcium carbonate antacid, and calcium-containing prenatal vitamins. Her symptoms and hypercalcemia resolved with intravenous fluids and a loop diuretic. With the increased use of calcium carbonate for peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and osteoporosis, milk-alkali syndrome has experienced a resurgence and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia. In this clinical vignette we review the literature on milk-alkali syndrome in pregnancy and discuss important diagnostic and therapeutic considerations when managing the pregnant patient with hypercalcemia.Journal of General Internal Medicine 02/2011; 26(8):939-42. DOI:10.1007/s11606-011-1658-0 · 3.42 Impact Factor